Влияние неформальных связей между руководителем и подчиненным на организационную лояльность подчиненного
Three dimensions of subordinate-supervisor relations (affective attachment, deference to supervisor, and personal-life inclusion) that had been found by Chen et al. (2009) to be characteristic of a guanxi relationship between subordinates and their supervisors in China were surveyed in Taiwan, Singapore and six non-Chinese cultural contexts. The affective attachment and deference subscales demonstrated full metric invariance whereas the personal-life inclusion subscale was found to have partial metric invariance across all eight samples. Structural equation modelling revealed that the affective attachment dimension had a cross-nationally invariant positive relationship to affective organizational commitment and a negative relationship to turnover intention. The deference to the supervisor dimension had invariant positive relationships with both affective and normative organizational commitment. The personal-life inclusion dimension was unrelated to all outcomes. These results indicate the relevance of aspects of guanxi to superior-subordinate relations in non-Chinese cultures. Studies of indigenous concepts can contribute to a broader understanding of organizational behavior.
The article deals with the problem of understanding the constructs "employee engagement" in scientific and practical literature. It is shown that the concept of "organizational commitment", "organizational citizenship behavior", "organizational identification" and "work engagement" are often seen as overlapping with the construct of "employee engagement." There is also the diversity of concepts describing the relationship of the employee with the organization that creates the terminological confusion and difficulties for their practical use. It proposed the concepts of "organizational identification", "organizational commitment" and "work engagement" to aggregate in the higher order construct "inclusion of employees in the organization
The given study is aimed to test cultural universality of the structure of informal ties in organizations in five different countries (Singapore, Saudi Arabia, Russia, UK, Brazil; N = 663). Study is based on the three-dimensional dynamic model of guanxi relations, which is specific to Chinese culture [Chen et al., 2009]. This model suggests that guanxi includes the following aspects of supervisor-subordinate relationships: emotional attachment, personal life inclusion, and deference to supervisor. Using confirmatory factor analysis we proved that the given structure of informal relationships is cultural-universal. The partial metric invariance for these three scales is also given. Results potentiate farther comparative studies of informal ties in organizations, and their effect on different psychological variables as motivation, organizational commitment and others. Such studies can serve as a basis to develop training programs for managers to help them to consider the fact of presence of informal ties in organization, and to manage this resource properly.