Субъектность российских промышленных рабочих: кейс-стади
The article contributes to the examination of working-class identity. The research is based on the theories of cultural class analysis (Savage, 2015) and genetic structuralism by Pierre Bourdieu. The workers of the Uralmash factory, the largest enterprise in the USSR still functioning today, were selected as an empirical research object. The field research was conducted in the genre of ethnographic case-study. During data collection in May-June 2017, the researchers including the authors became temporary residents of the Uralmash neighbourhood. The example of the Ural case shows that a contemporary worker in the post-Soviet area is a bearer of multiple and fragmented identity combining Soviet and post-Soviet practices and values. Workers describe themselves as ordinary people”, “a good man” using personal traits and values such as honesty, industriousness, sociability, dignity, simplicity, as well as in terms of identity in private life, e.g. a family person, a pensioner, a gardener. Many representatives of elder generations perceive themselves as people “living in the past”, “Soviet people”. Thus, the Soviet past remains the main resource and a ‘universal’ prop supporting subjective perception of factory workers of elder generations. ‘Neighbourhood-level’ patriotism is another significant sense-making resource for the identity of Uralmash workers. However, as our interviews and observation show, workers in the post-Soviet times become an “invisible” group in the neighbourhood initially constructed for their happy life. Due to specific habits and mentality elder workers cannot accept the new lifestyles imposed by new actors such as developers, cultural activists, and representatives of entertainment industry acting in the neighbourhood. Consequently, a factory worker in the post-Soviet times loses class identity typical for the Soviet period. As a result, workers reproduce or re-accept other identity types but keep the memory about the Soviet past and try to find a new basement for identity in private life.
Drawing on the discourse analysis of the higher education policy documents from 1950s to 2013 and interviews in two Russian universities, the chapter addresses the transformations in the purposes of higher education. The findings show that the main dichotomy in regard of the purposes of higher education unfolds between economic instrumentalism (vocational training) and social instrumentalism (personal development). In the Soviet documents, higher education was considered both as an instrument of national socio-economic development (through vocational training) and an instrument of individual growth. The latter role was predominant as education was an essential part of the broader social project of constructing a “new Soviet man”. In the transition period of mid-1980s–mid 1990s the policy discourse reflects an attempt to depart from economic instrumentalism and focus on the humanistic and social nature of education. Later documents present the transition to the economic instrumentalism emphasizing the economic role and economic rationales in higher education policy, which reflects the nature of the recent neoliberal reforms in the country. However, at the institutional level, social reality is more complex: there are significant tensions between economic purposes of higher education, utilitarianism, interiorized by administrators and faculty since the Soviet time, and social mission of higher education they face every day. Revealing the continuities in the discourse over several decades, the chapter shows that the predominance of economic discourse leads to the distortion of the educational mission of higher education, and in the environment impoverished by economic rationales, the importance of the social purposes of higher education has been rising.
This article represents the application of Case-studies for the English language teaching at Business Schools (students of World Economy and International Affairs Departments). The author shows the sequence of stages that provide for the learners the effective development of professional communication skills.
This study focuses on the assessment process and evaluation tools in a case study or a role play in a non-linguistic university. The multi-skill and multi-level communication activity assessment scheme is presented herein to enhance the students’ performance.