Мир и смысл мира в философии раннего Витгенштейна
In this article one can find a treatment of early Wittgenstein’s conception of sense of the world in “Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus”. What makes a physical fact to be a murder or a prayer? Wittgenstein considered that facts had no relations with sense, in other words, with Ethics. Facts are accidental. Only their logical structure is necessary. The sphere of necessity, or not accident, is the sphere of Aesthetics. It contains logic and Ethics as vision of the world from the point of view of what one ought to do. Aesthetics is located outside the world and cannot be expressed.
The present catalogue contains abstracts for some 150 volumes, among which books, periodicals, miscellanies, published by the Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the principal institute in Russia for academic research in all kinds of philosophical knowledge. These works, written by eminent Russian scholars, cover such fi elds as the history of Russian, Western and Oriental philosophy, ethics and aesthetics, synergetics and epistemology, social and political philosophy and concentrate on problems that have attained particular importance in the age of globalization and growth of national self-consciousness.
The paper claims all metaphysical views could be divided in two classes: metaphysical moral exclusivism that is the idea of the otherworldly nature of morality, and metaphysical moral inclusivism that is the idea that morality is an intrinsic component of the reality. The originality of the proposed separation is justiﬁ ed by historical review and the comparison with known ethical concepts. We also consider how the metaphysical notions of morality should correlate with the methodology of the empirical study of moral consciousness. We show that asking the question about the place of morality in the structure of reality imposes some theoretical constraints upon the Is-Ought Problem.
In this early paper C. Wright Mills tries to ground the possibility for the study of thinking (including logical) from the perspective of sociology of knowledge. Following G.H. Mead, he shows that thinking is a social process because every thinker converses with his or her audience using the norms of rationality and logicality common to his or her culture. Language serves as a mediator between thinking and social patterns. Proposing to consider the meaning of language as the common social behavior evoked by it, Mills finds a way to combine three levels of analysis: psychological, social and cultural.