Мир и смысл мира в философии раннего Витгенштейна
This work is mainly devoted to finding a place of ethical in early Wittgenstein’s philosophy. Science the problem of Ethics is inextricably linked with the logical point in “Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus” (role of logic in language, it’s relation to the world), considerations about the key issues are precede by a detailed analysis of Wittgenstein’s conception of logical space and object. It is important here that logic seems to be transcendental to the world. In other words, logical structure is necessary. However, it can be only shown. Both these cases are also essential for Ethics. In the end Aesthetics, defined as vision of the world from the point of view of necessity, is considered in relation with Ethics and logic.
The present catalogue contains abstracts for some 150 volumes, among which books, periodicals, miscellanies, published by the Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the principal institute in Russia for academic research in all kinds of philosophical knowledge. These works, written by eminent Russian scholars, cover such fi elds as the history of Russian, Western and Oriental philosophy, ethics and aesthetics, synergetics and epistemology, social and political philosophy and concentrate on problems that have attained particular importance in the age of globalization and growth of national self-consciousness.
The paper claims all metaphysical views could be divided in two classes: metaphysical moral exclusivism that is the idea of the otherworldly nature of morality, and metaphysical moral inclusivism that is the idea that morality is an intrinsic component of the reality. The originality of the proposed separation is justiﬁ ed by historical review and the comparison with known ethical concepts. We also consider how the metaphysical notions of morality should correlate with the methodology of the empirical study of moral consciousness. We show that asking the question about the place of morality in the structure of reality imposes some theoretical constraints upon the Is-Ought Problem.
In this early paper C. Wright Mills tries to ground the possibility for the study of thinking (including logical) from the perspective of sociology of knowledge. Following G.H. Mead, he shows that thinking is a social process because every thinker converses with his or her audience using the norms of rationality and logicality common to his or her culture. Language serves as a mediator between thinking and social patterns. Proposing to consider the meaning of language as the common social behavior evoked by it, Mills finds a way to combine three levels of analysis: psychological, social and cultural.
In the article position of S. Kripke, which is presented in his lectures "Identity and necessity", is considered. The thesis is proved that necessity of identity for names with strict reference will be carried out on the whole universum of such names, as non-descriptive names do not have their own sense. It excludes for them reference to various objects (or to classes of objects). The identity of non-descriptive names is possible only in a case poly-naming of the same object or of the same class of homogeneous objects (in case of a general non-descriptive name).