Управление стратегической конкурентоспособностью
The assumption that the telecommunications industry has natural monopoly characteristics dominated industrial policy during the twentieth century, supporting the monopolistic structure of telecommunications markets all across the world, and still prevails in many views on the economy of this field. The high level of concentration of telecommunications markets is often considered as a natural way of its development and some claim that this is a necessary condition for innovations in the industry. Meanwhile, the evolution of telecommunications in Russia after the collapse of the Soviet Union has shown quite the opposite. The industry in the country was able to demonstrate a relatively low level of market concentration, at least in some of the areas, to provide a high quality and a large variety of telecommunications services at significantly lower prices, in comparison with western countries, and shows one of the best indicators of network development in the world. While the Russian case poses quandaries for mainstream theories, the phenomenon fits the view of the Austrian school at the market process and exposes the benefits that the competitive order can bring to society.
The logic of interaction between state authorities and local self-government, in the conditions of constitutionally fixed independence of the branches of government, should be built on cooperation relations. The inter-municipal interactions of the administrations of urban and rural settlements with the regional authorities, since the two-level organization of local self-government is legislatively fixed, suggest, in addition to cooperation relations, also subordination relations. At the same time, the declared principles of openness, transparency and ethics in public administration exclude the building of interactions between authorities of different levels on informal relations.
Using the game-theoretic approach and as the basic model of interaction in a conflict situation, C. Thomas to describe the interaction between the leaders of government bodies of different levels (municipal district - settlement) and different branches (municipal - state power), we identified and described 4 possible types of one-dimensional models of interaction between authorities at different levels. The “normative” model (1) presupposes relations of cooperation as the main and leading in relations between managerial leaders. The "mobilization" model (2) presupposes relations of subordination, primarily between leaders of local and state levels. The “isolationist” model (3) implies a relationship of rivalry. The model (4) of “renunciation of authority” suggests that mutual avoidance is the basis of interactions between leaders. It was expected that the first two models of interactions, as normatively fixed relations of cooperation and subordination, would most closely correspond to the actual practice of interactions between leaders of government bodies. On the contrary, the last two models should have very limited value in management practice.
Real relationships are built on informal relationships using "forbidden" models, since interactions between managers are built primarily around the sharing of limited resources (financial, natural and administrative), which does not imply the principles of openness, transparency and ethics of public administration. In harsh conditions, the optimal interaction strategies for many grassroots leaders are submission or, on the contrary, intense rivalry, and by no means cooperation or avoiding interactions.
This is the first paper on consumer search where the cost of going back to stores already searched is explicitly taken into account. We show that the optimal sequential search rule under costly second visits is very different from the traditional reservation price rule in that it is nonstationary and not independent of previously sampled prices. We explore the implications of costly second visits on market equilibrium in two celebrated search models. In the Wolinsky model some consumers search beyond the first firm and in this class of models costly second visits do make a substantive difference: equilibrium prices under costly second visits can both be higher and lower than their perfect recall analogues. In the oligopoly search model of Stahl where consumers do not search beyond the first firm, there remains a unique symmetric equilibrium that has firms use pricing strategies that are identical to the perfect recall case.
The paper presents an approach to describe and analyze the accumulation of specific capital in a Soviet design organization during the late Soviet period. The study covers the period from 1968 to 1982. The system of fashion production under the Late Socialism is less explored compared with the Stalin and Thaw periods. The functioning of regional Clothing Design Houses which constituted a specific feature of the Soviet system of fashion production during this period is underexplored as well. Finally, as far as we know this study is the first attempt to apply the Bourdieu’s theory of the field of production to the Soviet fashion production. Typically, researchers do not use sociological theories of fashion production for the analysis of Soviet fashion. The study implies the categories of specific capital, hierarchy, and dynamic of the field of production. The system of fashion production of the Late Soviet period is considered as a particular case of fashion production in a non-capitalist society. There are two components of the study. The first one reconstructs the hierarchy of the Soviet system of fashion production. The second one describes professional strategies to accumulate specific capital and to occupy a position in the field of production. The study focuses on two cases of development and presentation of clothes collections by Perm Clothing Design House during All-Union and cluster meetings of designers in 1968 – 1969 and 1979 – 1982. The paper relies on published research on Soviet fashion history, archive documents, and in-depth interviews with ex-employees of Perm Clothing Design House. The results discuss the applicability of the term of specific capital to the explanation of hierarchy construction processes in the Late Soviet field of production of fashion. The paper contributes to the earlier conclusions about the ambivalent Soviet fashion policy. Also, it introduces the definition of specific capital as official representatives’ appreciation of the balance between the officially approved fashion trend of a season and creative search achieved by designers of a certain Clothing Design House. It suggests that there was a weird combination of socialist and pseudo-market practices penetrating the Soviet fashion field of restricted production.
This paper examines determinants of corruption across Russian regions. Key contributions include: (i) a formal study of economic corruption determinants across Russian regions; (ii) comparisons of determinants of perceived corruption versus those of actual corruption; and (iii) studying the influence of market competition and other factors on corruption. The re-sults show that economic prosperity, population, market competition and urbanization are significant determinants of Russian corruption. The use of alternative corruption measures reveals that economic prosperity and population have a largely similar impact on corrup-tion perceptions and corruption incidence. However, there are significant differences in the effects of competition and urbanization.
The personal role of sub-national rulers is crucial for regional development in countries with weak institutions. This paper studies the impact of regional governors’ tenure in ofﬁce and their local ties on procurement performance in Russia. To identify the causal effect, we construct instruments for governor’s tenure by exploiting the regional vote share of ruling party in past parliament elections. We ﬁnd the evidence that governors who do not have pre-governing local ties in the region (outsiders) demonstrate predatory behaviour, compared to governors with local ties (insiders). Namely, governors-outsiders restrict the competition at awarding stage signiﬁcantly more than governors-insiders. Moreover, for governors-outsiders this restriction becomes stronger with tenure in ofﬁce, while governors-insiders do not demonstrate such negative tenure effect. We argue that this restriction of competition by governors-outsiders cannot be explained by the intention of better contracts execution: the delays in execution and the probability of contract termination either increase or keep stable with tenure for governors-outsiders and these outcomes decrease with tenure for governors-insiders.
This study analyzes the effects of reducing trade barriers in the context of the objectives of competition policy. Separate chapters are devoted to the assessment of the height of Russian trade barriers, the analysis of the impact of international trade on domestic prices and concentration of production.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
портовый менеджмент, показатели деятельности, анализ эффективности, система учета, распределение издержек, методы анализа деятельности портовой системы
At present many industries reveal tendency for setting up of vertically integrated companies (VIC) the structure of which unites all technological processes. This tendency proved its efficiency in oil industry where coordination of all successive stages of technological process, namely, oil prospecting and production -oil transportation - oil processing - oil chemistry - oil products and oil chemicals marketing, is necessary. The article considers specific features of introduction of "personnel management" module at enterprises of oil and gas industry.
vertically integrated companies; personnel management