Окислительно-восстановительные реакции. Методические указания к лабораторной работе
Recent research on closed-loop supply chains (SC) and reverse logistics extensively emphasizes the crucial role of reducing negative return flows such as emissions, waste, etc. In this study, we consider the return flows in the SC in light disruptive events in the SC. The objective of this study is to compare the performance impact of different recovery policies on return flows subject to the simultaneously optimized reconfiguration plans for material flows. We formulate a multi-objective problem with return flow reduction function for a multi-period, multi-stage, multi-product SC. We consider a recovery problem with ripple effect, performance impact assessment and re-planning decisions. The developed multi-objective hybrid linear programming-system dynamics model allows simultaneously re-computing the material flows in a multi-stage SC after a disruption and comparing the performance impact of different recovery policies subject to return flows, gradual capacity recovery, variable recovery costs and time. The results suggest that the consideration of gradual capacity recovery leads to minimization of disruption-related return flows in both upstream and down stream SC parts. Fast and expensive recovery strategy provides the lowest return costs in the upstream SC part as compared to normal and slow recovery policies. Similar, the profits and service levels are increased. In the fast and expensive recovery policy, the performance in the upstream and downstream does not change with the introduction of the gradual recovery considerations. The effects of gradual capacity recovery introduction become evident if smaller time sub-periods are considered with in the recovery period.
At the turn of the 20th century, the issue of urban development was one of the key problems discussed by European architects. Architects were haunted by a fear of an expanding, sinister Metropolis that would trample humanity, make life in the city unbearable, and undermine traditional values and human interactions. The need to clear out the urban space seemed to be the primary task for architecture, and along with it questions were raised about expanding historical cities and building residences for socially defenseless residents. Among the proposed solutions, the concept of «instauratio urbis» (reiteration, restoration) was articulated—a traditional notion that one should restore the cultural significance of architecture as a repository of historical experience.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.