Экономическая социология: теория и история
This paper seeks to generate insights as to the way made to science and life in science by one of Russia's leading social economists and sociologists T.I. Zaslavskaya (1927–2013). Zaslavskaya's way to science is described in connection with her socialization and professionalization, her civic position as well as with the mentoring traditions of her teachers and herself as the Teacher and a founder of her own school of thought. The first part of the article (see Obshchestvennyie nauki i sovremennost’, 2018, no. 6) was devoted to the history of the formation of Zaslavskaya as a person, as a scientist, to the grasping of those principles that later formed the basis of her work as a mentor, creator of her economical and sociological school. This second part identifies the consistency of key concepts integral to the economic and sociological periods of Zaslavskaya's academic career and points out the growing expansion and complexity of her research area. Special emphasis is made on the up-to-date significance of the concepts and theories developed by Zaslavskaya over years for social economics, economic and general sociology and an interdisciplinary conceptualization of post-communist transformations.
Based on economic-sociological, marketing, and strategic management literature, we combine two classifications of inter-firm relations (horizontal and vertical) and propose the original typology of four ideal types of inter-firm exchange. The quantitative prevalence and the comparative economic efficiency of each ideal type are estimated using indicators of sales dynamics, changes in commodity range and competitive positions. The empirical analysis is based on data from a standardized survey of 684 corporate managers (of retailer and supplier firms) operating in Russia in the food and non-food markets conducted by the HSE in 2016. The analysis revealed high prevalence of building intensive inter-firm relations in the supply chain and low prevalence of network connections with competitors. Additionally, the combination of horizontal relationships with competitors and building vertical relationships in accordance with the concept of relationship marketing is associated with the highest rates of economic efficiency.
The article analyzes ways to organize the so-called immaterial labor in the framework of the theory of cognitive capitalism (TCC). The author proceeds from the theory of immanent contradictions of cognitive capitalism formulated by Yann Moulier Boutang, Carlo Vercellone, Andre Gorz and developed in the works of other representatives of TCC: this is the contradiction between the autonomy of labor and its valorization, and the contradiction between the non-commodity nature of knowledge and strategies for its commodification. The following analysis is based on the assumption that labor organization regimes and organizational models are designed, firstly, to prevent the development of these contradictions, and secondly, to adapt to external socio-economic conditions (uncertainty, the precarization of hiring, the volatility of prices for intangible assets, crises). Due to the weak theoretical development of the problem of labor organization within the framework of the TCC, the article offers a reconstruction of the views of these authors on the problem. The paper offers two versions of the answer to the question about the organization of immaterial labor within the TCC: the version suggested by Moulier Boutang originates from the hypothesis of network coordination developed in the works of Yochai Benkler and Walter Powell, while the second version derivesfrom the assumption of a weak structural determinacy of the actions of autonomous agentsthat are integrated into the value chain through the process of subjectivation. The author criticizes the given assumptions of the TCC and puts forward a number of theoretical propositionsthat justify the hypothesis of the transition to a Neo-Taylorist model of management of immaterial labor.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.