### Book

## Определенный и кратные интегралы. Элементы теории поля

We explicitly show that the one loop IR correction to the two--point function in de Sitter space scalar QFT does not reduce just to the mass renormalization. The proper interpretation of the loop corrections is via particle creation revealing itself through the generation of the quantum averages $<a^+_p a_p>$, $<a_p a_{-p}>$ and $<a^+_p a^+_{-p}>$, which slowly change in time. We show that this observation in particular means that loop corrections to correlation functions in de Sitter space can not be obtained via analytical continuation of those calculated on the sphere.

We find harmonics for which the particle number $<a^+_p a_p>$ dominates over the anomalous expectation values $<a_p a_{-p}>$ and $<a^+_p a^+_{-p}>$. For these harmonics the Dyson--Schwinger equation reduces in the IR limit to the kinetic equation. We solve the latter equation, which allows us to sum up all loop leading IR contributions to the Whiteman function. We perform the calculation for the principle series real scalar fields both in expanding and contracting Poincare patches.

We propose an ansatz which solves the Dyson-Schwinger equation for the real scalar fields in Poincare patch of de Sitter space in the IR limit. The Dyson-Schwinger equation for this ansatz reduces to the kinetic equation, if one considers scalar fields from the principal series. Solving the latter equation we show that under the adiabatic switching on and then off the coupling constant the Bunch-Davies vacuum relaxes in the future infinity to the state with the flat Gibbons-Hawking density of out-Jost harmonics on top of the corresponding de Sitter invariant out-vacuum.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.