Олимпийский Сочи: Социум. Культура. Личность. Материалы V Всероссийской научно-практической конференции
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
High risk of informal behavior during the Olympic Games bid procedure requires some changes in the current system since the subjectivity in choosing the Olympic Games capital, risk of double selling of the votes and other informal behavior still exist.
The article presents results of the research of the economic, social and environmental effects of the Olympic Games. A comparative analysis of the impact the Olympic Games on the socio-economic development of the host regions from 1972 to 2012 has been conducted. Proposed conclusions and recommendations are ordered to enhance positive effects of the Olympic Games and to keep the regional development acceleration rate in post Olympic period.
There are many arguments which cause countries to take part in the competition for the right to host the Olympic Games. The most important of them are increasing of host region reputation, development of infrastructure and improvement of the competitiveness of the national brands. However Olympics expectations are often too high compared with the actual results. This paper discusses the international experience of using the Olympic Games as a tool for creating a positive image of the Olympic capital and the host region in general. The study covers period from 1972 to 2012. It identifies both positive and negative effects of Olympic Games on the host region development and image. The special attention was paid to the positive Olympic experience in Beijing (2008) and London (2012). These Olympic Games can be considered as an effective tool both for social and economic development and for strengthening of the political position of the host countries in the international scene. Studying and using the key elements of a technology of positive image creating is important for Sochi Olympic Games because its main political goal is to increase Russia’s international influence. The paper formulates the problems of political positioning of Winter Olympic Games Sochi - 2014 and identifies the main risks and conditions of achieving its image goals.
This article couples framing analyses with social identity issues to provide a critical discourse analysis of the Sochi Olympics opening ceremony, along with the various media depictions surrounding it. Moreover, it explores the idea of 'derzhava' as a rediscovered political narrative/frame in Russian symbolic politics. We argue that images and symbols alluding to different events in the past and present play significant roles in the social construction of people’s identities. Our lives are largely dependent upon what we tend to forget, and what we still remember. As the first impressions of the Sochi Olympics Games pass away, we are finally able to see what stayed hidden, and what was deliberately left in light. Relying upon the research on the connection between collective memory and social identity, we examine several Sochi Olympics events, seeking to identify what the organizers of the Games wanted us to remember, and what was meant to be forgotten. What symbols and signs were deliberately and repeatedly manifested to evoke Russian national pride? What was left behind the scenes in order not to revive traumatic collective memory of the past? An analysis of two frames – “the frame of commemoration” and “the frame of obliteration” - helps to shed light on the veiled elements of new Russian social identity construction today. In addition, our analysis helps to explain how the Sochi Olympics became a springboard for launching a more forceful symbolic politics commensurate with new Russian power ambitions.
In Munich, a referendum on a bid for the 2022 Winter Olympics was held in November 2013 and failed. This study analyzes the determinants of the percent of favorable votes using secondary data from all 52 communities involved in the referendum. The evidence suggests that potential host communities tended to have larger vote shares in favor of putting in a bid as did communities with higher rates of unemployment. In communities with a high share of votes for the Green and the Leftist party in the federal state elections, the percent of favorable votes for the Olympic bid was significantly lower. Moreover, the negative effect of the number of hotel beds per capita suggests that voters were concerned with crowding-out of regular tourists during the Olympics. Local politicians and bidding committees could use this information to better understand the local population and to improve their support for hosting Olympic Games. © 2015 West Virginia University.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.