Russian-American Links: African-Americans and Russia = Российско-американские связи: Афроамериканцы и Россия
Analyzed campaigns of German and Russian sociologists to problems of values in transformed societies. The special attention is given to problems of values of the market and a place of youth in system of market relations.
Nowadays, attitude towards childhood is changing, the value of individual development of the child is intensifying. The demand for the construction and maintenance of individual educational path is increasing. This creates a demand for new professional duties, including support of the individual educational program delegated to the profession of a tutor. The study aims to identify the social roles of the tutor in the first year of formation of the educational community of a private school. The hypothesis of the study: within the process of active formation of social community of the new school tutor, while interacting with parents, teachers and administration, takes on a number of informal duties associated with individual work with the student in excess of educational tasks. The qualitative research strategy was applied due to the need for in-depth analysis and identification of cause-andeffect relationships and hidden meanings in the system of social interactions. The sample (21 people) included representatives of various social roles: tutors — 8 persons; parents of pupils — 5 persons; representatives of administration — 3 persons; subject teachers — 3 persons; psychologists — 2 persons. Data gathering was carried out by the method of in-depth semi-formalized interview based on the developed research program (40 initial questions). It was revealed that the role-based set of duties of the tutor in the new school is not a given characteristic of the profession in question, but is a product of contexts and interactions that form the content of a unique institution under conditions of emerging communications, events and school’s way of life. At the end of the first cycle of life of the educational community of the school a wide range of roles of the tutor was formed, which actualizes the task of professional self-determination of the tutor in the system of social interactions.
Economy is embedded in ongoing concrete social networks, and economic processes are increasingly international in character. Three interrelated processes are crucial for setting the frame of analysis for this book: globalisation, development of post-industrial societies, and transformation of European post-socialist countries. Within this framework the main issues will be as follows: economies in transition - reliable patterns, imitation, local adaptation, cultural embeddedness; multiplicity of markets - commodification of life, new markets in old societies; economic behavior - households, micro-enterprises, local and global influences; and, contemporary polities i.e. states, the European Union and global corporations. The stress will be placed on actors, relations and institutions as the driving forces of the above described processes. The authors of this collection analyze, based on their empirical material, very interesting socio-economic issues. These are: ethical consumption from the perspective of the moral economy and its connection to political institutions in Europe (and particularly in Hungary); the cultural context of consumption, both in the case of social networks in Bangladesh and of counterfeited goods on the Russian market; the new and old, individual and organizational actors in transition economies, for instance in Poland and Croatia; the new approach to corporations as global actors, stressing their social responsibility; the dynamics of managerial practices in the example of Russia; the influence of EU funds and policies on the Polish SMEs market; the cultural embeddedness of economic behavior, in the case of Poles working in the Scottish market and of entrepreneurs in Damascus; the retirement policy in the fast aging societies of Spain and Poland; and, the emergence of the new markets, like that of health services, in Russia and that of the property market in Eastern and Central Europe.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.