Социально-гуманитарные проблемы современности: человек, общество и культура
The paper is based on materials from two projects carried out by the Center for Migration Studies (CMS, Moscow), which have been realized with support from the UN Women: “Opportunities and Problems of Social Integration of Labor Migrants from Central Asian Countries in Russia” (the sample size is 400 respondents; the query regions are Moscow and St. Petersburg) and “Migrant Women from CIS Coun tries in Russia” (the sample size is 1169 respondents; the query regions are Moscow and Moscow oblast, Samara oblast, St. Petersburg and Leningrad oblast, and Krasnodar krai). The materials of two focus groups with migrant women from Central Asia in Russia, which were organized in 2010, have also been used.
In this paper we study convergence among Russian regions. We find that while there was no convergence in 1990s, the situation changed dramatically in 2000s. While interregional GDP per capita gaps still persist, the differentials in incomes and wages decreased substantially. We show that fiscal redistribution did not play a major role in convergence. We therefore try to understand the phenomenon of recent convergence using panel data on the interregional reallocation of capital and labor. We find that capital market in Russian regions is integrated in a sense that local investment does not depend on local savings. We also show that economic growth and financial development has substantially decreased the barriers to labor mobility. We find that in 1990s many poor Russian regions were in a poverty trap: potential workers wanted to leave those regions but could not afford to finance the move. In 2000s (especially in late 2000s), these barriers were no longer binding. Overall economic development allowed even poorest Russian regions to grow out of the poverty traps. This resulted in convergence in Russian labor market; the interregional gaps in incomes, wages and unemployment rates are now below those in Europe. The results imply that economic growth and development of financial and real estate markets eventually result in interregional convergence.
This monograph deals with migration issues in Europe. The authors examine how migration affects the social and political situation in the European Union and point out difficulties in integrating immigrants in the EU Member States. They analyse the normative base of the EU immigration policy and consider new proposals in combating illegal migration as well. Challenges for the Russian immigration policy are also in the focus of authors’ attention. Experts define specific features of labour immigration to Russia and characterise different channels to attract foreign workers. The latest changes in the Russian immigration law, a case of the Southern Federal District in the context of Russian immigration policy, applicability of the EU’s experience and the EU-Russia cooperation in migration are also observed. In conclusion the authors express their concern over the fact that even with existing programmes, laws and institutions immigration policy in different parts of Europe is still lacking efficiency.
The chapter contains a review of labour migration trends and migration policies in the area of the Commonwealth of independend states.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.