Методические материалы по разработке и реализации программ инновационного развития акционерных обществ с государственным участием, государственных корпораций и федеральных государственных унитарных предприятий
Enhancing innovation performance in the industrial sector of the Russian economy is a long overdue. Since 2010 the government has conducted a kind of «incumbent» policy approach, encouraging mainly the largest state-owned companies. The latter are obliged to elaborate and implement innovation development programmes (IDPs) in order to accelerate modernization of the Russian economy and increase demand for innovation. This paper analyzes the results of the monitoring of STI activities undertaken by the state-owned companies in relation to implementation of innovative development programmes. It evaluates the interim results of government initiatives to foster innovation in the related business segment, notes the negative effects of excessive «compulsion» to innovate and provides recommendations for improving policy. Monitoring shows that the actual priority for most companies is modernization of fixed assets through acquisition of modern machinery and equipment. Technology adoption, along with R&D investments, significantly surpasses other possible mechanisms encouraging innovative development (including support for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), education and training in innovation, co-operation with other actors in the framework of technology platforms, venture funding). The innovation outputs of the surveyed group of companies are in fact comparable to the Russian average although monitoring does not allow the assessment of corporate patent strategies or the novelty of innovative products that are produced and exported. The author argues that the fundamental policy effect through organizational changes and investments may manifest itself in the next decade. However, the quality of the corporate management, employee loyalty to structural change and organisational culture that supports innovation, would likely be more important in enhancing overall performance. Policy recommendations include: differentiation of government incentives according to the companies' specificities, development of their external linkages with SMEs and universities, linking innovation strategies to corporate policies, and integration of IDPs into the roadmaps of technological development of Russian regions and markets.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
The article prevents the model which allows assessing the project management maturity quantitatively and determining the development trend of the project management. This model has been approved in 10 consulting companies. The conducted survey in the companies enabled to assess project management maturity quantitatively, collect information about the time deviations and the project costs as well as construct regression equation of dependence declinations from maturity level. The constructed equation can be used by the companies in forecasting the declinations in the project key indexes under the shift in the management processes maturity.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.