Методические материалы по разработке и реализации программ инновационного развития акционерных обществ с государственным участием, государственных корпораций и федеральных государственных унитарных предприятий
Enhancing innovation performance in the industrial sector of the Russian economy is a long overdue. Since 2010 the government has conducted a kind of «incumbent» policy approach, encouraging mainly the largest state-owned companies. The latter are obliged to elaborate and implement innovation development programmes (IDPs) in order to accelerate modernization of the Russian economy and increase demand for innovation. This paper analyzes the results of the monitoring of STI activities undertaken by the state-owned companies in relation to implementation of innovative development programmes. It evaluates the interim results of government initiatives to foster innovation in the related business segment, notes the negative effects of excessive «compulsion» to innovate and provides recommendations for improving policy. Monitoring shows that the actual priority for most companies is modernization of fixed assets through acquisition of modern machinery and equipment. Technology adoption, along with R&D investments, significantly surpasses other possible mechanisms encouraging innovative development (including support for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), education and training in innovation, co-operation with other actors in the framework of technology platforms, venture funding). The innovation outputs of the surveyed group of companies are in fact comparable to the Russian average although monitoring does not allow the assessment of corporate patent strategies or the novelty of innovative products that are produced and exported. The author argues that the fundamental policy effect through organizational changes and investments may manifest itself in the next decade. However, the quality of the corporate management, employee loyalty to structural change and organisational culture that supports innovation, would likely be more important in enhancing overall performance. Policy recommendations include: differentiation of government incentives according to the companies' specificities, development of their external linkages with SMEs and universities, linking innovation strategies to corporate policies, and integration of IDPs into the roadmaps of technological development of Russian regions and markets.
The article prevents the model which allows assessing the project management maturity quantitatively and determining the development trend of the project management. This model has been approved in 10 consulting companies. The conducted survey in the companies enabled to assess project management maturity quantitatively, collect information about the time deviations and the project costs as well as construct regression equation of dependence declinations from maturity level. The constructed equation can be used by the companies in forecasting the declinations in the project key indexes under the shift in the management processes maturity.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.
At present many industries reveal tendency for setting up of vertically integrated companies (VIC) the structure of which unites all technological processes. This tendency proved its efficiency in oil industry where coordination of all successive stages of technological process, namely, oil prospecting and production -oil transportation - oil processing - oil chemistry - oil products and oil chemicals marketing, is necessary. The article considers specific features of introduction of "personnel management" module at enterprises of oil and gas industry.
vertically integrated companies; personnel management