Сборник научных трудов Второй Санкт-Петербургской конференции исследователей в сфере экономики, бизнеса и общества: итоги и вызовы 2020 года
On December 25,2020, the second national Conference of researchers of economics, Business and society was held at the Higher School of Economics–Saint Petersburg. This event was associated with the discussion of academic and applied issues on the results and challenges that 2020 brought in various fields of science and practice: finance, economics, mathematics,education. The online conference was attended by researchers from universities in different Russian cities. Postgraduates and students from different universities, as well as practitioners from different fields of activity, contributed as co-authors. It is important that this event brought together all socially significant disciplines and became a platform for knowledge exchange, summing up the results of the year and building plans for future research. This collection contains abstracts of papers selected for participation in the conference program; selected articles are also included.
In the 70s of the twentieth century, several directives were introduced in the European Union under the collective name Solvency-I, which spelled out the requirements for the solvency of insurance organizations and their capital. Such rules were supposed to force insurers to minimize the likelihood of bankruptcy by maintaining the necessary level of their stability. Due to significant changes in the economies of European countries, including in the insurance market, there is a need to make modifications to the existing regulations. A new Solvency-II Directive was adopted. One of the main differences between Solvency-II and Solvency-I is the use of a risk-based approach (ROP) when setting requirements for the solvency of the insurer. Russia signed the WTO accession agreement in 2012. Therefore, all organizations must comply with key parameters, not only Russian, but also European legislation. Initially, the requirements of the Russian legislation corresponded to the Solvency-I Directive. However, now Russian insurance companies need to switch to the requirements of the Solvency-II Directive. An important point for the companies ' activities is the differences between these two documents, so the purpose of the study is a comparative analysis of the requirements of Solvency-I and Solvency-II, taking into account certain specific characteristics of economic activity in Russia. Our work is devoted to a brief overview of the creation and development of the Solvency-I and Solvency-II Directives, the advantages and disadvantages of the Solvency-II Directive currently operating in the EU, as well as a brief description of its structure and main requirements. The study will also present the specifics of the implementation of the technical requirements imposed by the Directive. At the same time, the difficulties of their application to the Russian reality will be taken into account.
Russia is a developing country that is just beginning to realize the need to apply modern environmental methods, but so far the implementation cases are limited to private initiatives and internal standards of some companies that want to improve their image by meeting the environmental expectations of investors. The oil and gas industry is fundamentally important for Russia. It forms about 60% of the federal budget, and the share of the oil and gas sector in total exports is more than 2/3. To achieve sustainable development of the industry, it is necessary not only to constantly produce and sell raw materials. They need to be combined with in-depth processing, accelerated development of industry science and oil and gas engineering, professional development of personnel, and a set of measures to ensure environmental protection. The introduction of a circular economy in the oil and gas sector is the best way to bring the country's economy closer to the idea of sustainable development and growth. The authors propose to combine modern strategic approaches to assessing reversibility in the use of resources into a scheme for analyzing the most promising areas.