A Modern Guide to Labour and the Platform Economy
В начале XXI века возникла и стала активно развиваться занятость населения через онлайн-платформы. Это стало отличительной чертой новой цифровой экономики. В настоящей работе прослеживается развитие платформенной занятости фрилансеров в Российской Федерации и на постсоветском пространстве в целом. В исследовании используются уникальные данные четырех онлайн-опросов, проведенных авторами в 2009, 2011, 2014 и 2019 годах на ведущей русскоязычной бирже удалённой работы для творческого и интеллектуального труда FL.ru. Общая методология, используемая для сбора и анализа данных каждого обследования, даёт возможность пролить свет на динамику ключевых показателей за десятилетний период. В исследовании рассматриваются социально-демографические характеристики фрилансеров, их карьерные траектории, мотивация, условия работы и удовлетворённость ею, а также проблемы, с которыми фрилансеры сталкиваются в своих отношениях с клиентами. В целом результаты указывают на возросшее значение платформ, распространение новой модели работы среди более широких слоев населения и распространённость неформальных отношений, которые могут препятствовать будущему развитию онлайн-рынка труда. Отсутствие основных трудовых прав, коллективного представительства и социальной защиты фрилансеров также вызывает серьёзную озабоченность.
The author describes the principal stages in the development of research in profession prestige since the emergence of the field in 1925 and up to the recent publications of 2006. The key phenomenon uncovered in the course of the research is that the relative rating of prestigious professions remains almost independent of research technique, surveyed group, time or place. More precise recent studies showed that profession prestige does exhibit small dynamics, but nevertheless remains fairly stable. However, studies of this type are practically non-existent in Russia. The author offers a very general picture of the concept of profession prestige as it emerged in Western sociology after hundreds of studies. The conclusion of the article is that research on profession prestige is highly desirable in Russia. It is of use both for practical purposes (for education and professional orientation, or as an objective stratification parameter, for all social sciences) and as an independent topic of study.
Based on a sample of 5,784 Russian-speaking respondents, this study provides the first quantitative evidence on freelance contracting via the Internet. We explore the extent to which these virtual business relations are formal or informal, and the role of social capital and
networking. Our data suggest freelancers act under constant threat of malfeasance from clients. We address a number of questions associated with freelancers’ business risks and how freelancers might mitigate them. The logistic regression models reveal that the virtualization of relationships with clients is associated with greater moral hazard risks and fewer opportunities for dispute resolution. Formal written contracts do not prevent opportunistic behaviors by clients, though such contracts help resolve conflicts. Dealing with available social contacts and referrals decreases both the probability of extreme opportunism, causing financial losses, and the probability that disputes remain unresolved. Nevertheless, established social relations could be exploited by clients who
can delay payments or insist on altering deadlines, work scope and specifications. Thus, our findings contribute to existing literatures on social capital in freelance contracting and on the structure of occupational labor markets.
This paper examines wage differentials between permanent/non-permanent and full-time/part-time employees. The analysis is based on the representative Household Survey of Welfare dataset, collected by Rosstat and the World Bank in 2003. The results show that non-permanent workers suffer a loss in wages while part-timers earn more per hour than full-timers, but the wage gap diminishes substantially when controlled for observed and non-observed characteristics. It seems that the theory of segmented labor markets is quite appropriate for explaining these differences in the Russian labor market.
Research «Problems of Switching to Distance Education in the Russian Federation through the Eyes of Teachers» was carried out by the Laboratory for Me- diacommunications in Education of the National Research University Higher School of Economics in late March — early April 2020. The aim is to identify main problems and difficulties faced by teachers during this period. 22 600 teachers in 75 regions of the country were participated in the survey. The availability of devices for con- ducting video and audio lessons and working with online platforms was evaluated among teachers and pupil. At the time of the survey only 25% of teachers conduct- ed video lessons. Rural schools and schools in small and medium-sized towns are at risk due to the small numbers of devices for online classes in families. In addition to problems with technical support and low speed of Internet connection teachers point out the lack of training materials on online platforms from such subjects as music, art, additional education and adapted manuals for children with disabilities. The current situation in 6 regions was reviewed separately: Saratov Oblast, Kras- nodar Krai, Zabaykalsky Krai, Omsk Oblast, Murmansk Oblast and Sakha (Yakutia) Republic.
Regional education authorities may be interested in this research as an objective assessment of the transition to distance learning and to build integrated work to eliminate the most actual problems.
This paper examines the connection between people's notions of economical situation and their economic behavior. This issue is considered on the example of forming up the notions of unemployment and their influence on workers adaptation in the labor market. Using the data of RMEE for 1994-2000 years the authors show that at the beginning of this period the fear of unemployment was forming up exogenously in relation to the real situation in the labor market. Along with actual unemployment it was a meaningful factor of lowering pressure on real wages. With the reforms development social learning of popula118" № 4 (66) июль-август 2003 Мониторинг общественного мнения tion decreased the importance of fear as an autonomous of unemployment adaptation mechanism in the labor market. The main conclusions of the paper are confirmed by econometric calculations using both MNK-estimations for cross-sectional data for particular years and estimations of panel regressions with individual effects.