Мониторинг экономики образования. № 34, 2020 Дудырев Ф.Ф., Рожкова К.В., Романова О.А., Травкин П.В. «Обучение и трудоустройство студентов программ среднего профессионального образования с ограниченными возможностями здоровья и инвалидностью»
The paper analyzes the results of the systems project Training Workers to Comply with the Requirements of High-Tech Industries Using Dual Education, organized by the Agency for Strategic Initiatives in 13 subjects of the Russian Federation. Dual education implies “dual” institutional consolidation of knowledge obtained in vocational education programs: theory is normally learned at a vocational school, while an apprenticeship is taken within a company, in a real-life working environment. It is shown that the best practices of dual education can be found in the growing sectors. The most successful implementation of the dual model is observed in the regions of Russia that have seen their investment climates improved, their barriers for businesses reduced, and the quality of their public administration increased. Effectiveness of the dual model is largely contingent on the economic motivations of employers investing in a staff training system within the framework of large-scale investment and technology upgrade projects. As employers’ associations are weak, the decisive role in the coordination of efforts between businesses and professional educational institutions is played by regional authorities and governor’s councils, which have virtually grown into substitutes for German chambers of industry and commerce. Nationwide vocational education projects have promoted further development of the dual model due to organizational and financial support from study and career clusters. The best dual education practices should only be spread to regional industries that have the necessary economic and infrastructure premises for companies to invest in such a staff training system.
The article provides an overview of the best practices of the European Union in the field of vocational education and training (VET). The selected projects from vocational educational organizations in Germany, Denmark, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Croatia and some other countries deal with training workers for high-tech sectors of economy, as well as for reintegration of yearly school leavers to education. Particular attention is paid to the mechanisms of public-private partnership in the field of VET, the most effective organizational solutions and models of cooperation among educational organizations, business structures and governmental bodies. The best foreign experience in the field of qualified employees’ training for the post-industrial economy, as well as in the field of social inclusion, can be used for the development of the VET system in the Russian Federation.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.