Partition Functions and Automorphic Forms
This book offers an introduction to the research in several recently discovered and actively developing mathematical and mathematical physics areas. It focuses on: 1) Feynman integrals and modular functions, 2) hyperbolic and Lorentzian Kac-Moody algebras, related automorphic forms and applications to quantum gravity, 3) superconformal indices and elliptic hypergeometric integrals, related instanton partition functions, 4) moonshine, its arithmetic aspects, Jacobi forms, elliptic genus, and string theory, and 5) theory and applications of the elliptic Painleve equation, and aspects of Painleve equations in quantum field theories. All the topics covered are related to various partition functions emerging in different supersymmetric and ordinary quantum field theories in curved space-times of different (d=2,3,…,6) dimensions. Presenting multidisciplinary methods (localization, Borcherds products, theory of special functions, Cremona maps, etc) for treating a range of partition functions, the book is intended for graduate students and young postdocs interested in the interaction between quantum field theory and mathematics related to automorphic forms, representation theory, number theory and geometry, and mirror symmetry.
We give a brief account of the key properties of elliptic hypergeometric integrals --- a relatively recently discovered top class of transcendental special functions of hypergeometric type. In particular, we describe an elliptic generalization of Euler?s and Selberg?s beta integrals, elliptic analogue of the Euler-Gauss hypergeometric function and some multivariable elliptic hypergeometric functions on root systems. The elliptic Fourier transformation and corresponding integral Bailey lemma technique is outlined together with a connection to the star-triangle relation and Coxeter relations for a permutation group. We review also the interpretation of elliptic hypergeometric integrals as superconformal indices of four dimensional supersymmetric quantum field theories and corresponding applications to Seiberg type dualities.