Covid-19 in the Arctic: Briefing Document for Senior Arctic Officials, Senior Arctic Officials’ executive meeting Iceland, 24-25 June 2020
The Arctic Council is well-positioned to play a leadership role in better understanding the impact of Covid-19 in the Arctic and spearheading activities to respond to the pandemic in the short-, medium- and longer-term. This briefing document was prepared to inform initial discussions regarding the coronavirus pandemic in the Arctic at the Senior Arctic Officials’ executive meeting (SAOX) on 24-25 June 2020. It draws together available information – to date (June 2020) – about the impact of Covid-19 in the Arctic: Briefing Document for SAOs June 2020 For public release Page 10 of 83 Covid-19 and the actions taken to respond in the Arctic region. The document draws from a wide spectrum of sources, reflecting the complex and intricate nature of how Covid-19 affects Arctic peoples and communities, including national and subnational statistical databases and tools, peer-reviewed articles, policy statements, technical guidelines, field surveys, and local observations from Arctic communities.
The publication, prepared by experts from the Institute of Education at the Higher School of Economics and the World Bank, provides a comprehensive assessment of possible losses for school education and human capital in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as possible ways to minimize and compensate them.
The publication includes three sections. The first section, based on data (quasi-experimental studies of the effects of school closures due to cataclysms, non-attendance by individual students of schools, studies of losses during the summer break), discusses the hypotheses about the extent of possible losses in student knowledge in the conditions of termination of full-time education. The second section is devoted to the analysis of three scenarios in connection with a pandemic and the forecasting of changes in the learning curve of schoolchildren. The third section examines the longer-term effects of the current crisis on the future earnings of current students and the overall economic situation.
The publication includes practical recommendations and suggestions on educational policy measures that can be implemented to minimize and compensate for the negative impact of the pandemic.
This work is of interest, both for researchers in the field of school education, and for leaders of the educational system at different levels, principals and teachers of schools.
This work contains an express answer to four questions about what happened in the higher education system at the very beginning of the introduction of quarantine measures: (1) how have universities and the states reacted worldwide? (2) what are the reaction of Russian universities? (3) how do students and teachers perceive the situation? (4) Is there enough infrastructure to implement quarantine measures of remote work and training?
Most of the analytics were collected on an initiative basis, but the most important sections were written on the basis of data collected within the working group of the Russian Ministry of Education and Science to organize educational activities in the context of preventing the spread of COVID-19 infection in the Russian Federation under the leadership of the Department of Youth Policy (in terms of sociological student survey) and the Department of Information Technology in the field of science and higher education (in terms of monitoring infrastructure and opportunities Translation courses in distance learning). Data collection and analysis would not have been possible without cooperation with MIREA, as well as representatives of ITMO University, Ural Federal University, Tomsk State University and support from Mail.ru Group and the Association of Volunteer Centers.
All world upward trends and cycles have a lot in common while crises significantly differ. In the case of this research the recession was sparked not by the shock of financial sector but by the restrictions imposed on consumption that previously was not inclined to fluctuate that much. Oil price shock has increased negative influence on the world energy market and economy overall. The decline in employment and personal consumption has struck more on most vulnerable social classes but the decreased volume of demand can be also attributed to the wealth (catering, tourism and others). Once began, the recession develops by its own rules — a sharp fall in the world trade, fixed capital formation, growth of budget deficits, and particularly strong impact on developing countries most dependent on tourism and financial assistance.
Keywords: pandemic, coronavirus, COVID-19, business cycle, social inequality, personal consumption, capital formation, finance.
JEL: A14, D11, F02, T32.
In this Chapter the author analyzes the process of formation of the regulatory foundations of occupational safety and health on the international level and in Russia, including the historical context, contemporary conceptual approaches to its regulation, its relation to the relevant international standards, peculiarities of the governmental policy in the field, corporate regulatory initiatives and respective pressing problems.
On April 21, 2020, the Presidium of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation issued an “Overview of selected issues of judicial practice, related to the application of legislation and measures to stop the spread of the coronavirus infection (COVID-19) on the territory of the Russian Federation No. 1” (the “Overview”).
This Overview sets out a number of important clarifications on the practical application of recent legislative developments as well as recent COVID-19 related measures to dispute resolution, contract performance, creditors’ rights, the imposition of criminal liability for spreading fake news on COVID-19 and on administrative liability for the violation of sanitary rules and protective measures. We set forth herein a number of clarifications affecting contract performance and dispute resolution.
This prototype development explains the challenges encountered during the ISO/IEEE 11073 standard implementation process. The complexity of the standard and the consequent heavy requirements, which have not encouraged software engineers to adopt the standard. The developing complexity evaluation drives us to propose two possible implementation strategies that cover almost all possible use cases and eases handling the standard by non-expert users. The first one is focused on medical devices (MD) and proposes a low-memory and low-processor usage technique. It is based on message patterns that allow simple functions to generate ISO/IEEE 11073 messages and to process them easily. MD act as X73 agent. Second one is focused on more powerful device X73 manager, which do not have the MDs' memory and processor usage constraints. The protocol between Agent and Manager is point-to-point and we can distribute the functionality between devices.
Developed both implementation X73 Agent and Manager will cut developing time for applications based on ISO/EEE 11073.
Many environmental stimuli present a quasi-rhythmic structure at different timescales that the brain needs to decompose and integrate. Cortical oscillations have been proposed as instruments of sensory de-multiplexing, i.e., the parallel processing of different frequency streams in sensory signals. Yet their causal role in such a process has never been demonstrated. Here, we used a neural microcircuit model to address whether coupled theta–gamma oscillations, as observed in human auditory cortex, could underpin the multiscale sensory analysis of speech. We show that, in continuous speech, theta oscillations can flexibly track the syllabic rhythm and temporally organize the phoneme-level response of gamma neurons into a code that enables syllable identification. The tracking of slow speech fluctuations by theta oscillations, and its coupling to gamma-spiking activity both appeared as critical features for accurate speech encoding. These results demonstrate that cortical oscillations can be a key instrument of speech de-multiplexing, parsing, and encoding.
In the internal medicine wide spectrum the gastroenterology is one of the chapters, less enlightened by the scientific evidence. It does not mean that the practice of the grasntroenterology may ot be improved by the systematic use of the approaches of the evidence based medicine
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.