Проблемы перехода на дистанционное обучение в Российской Федерации глазами учителей
Research «Problems of Switching to Distance Education in the Russian Federation through the Eyes of Teachers» was carried out by the Laboratory for Me- diacommunications in Education of the National Research University Higher School of Economics in late March — early April 2020. The aim is to identify main problems and difficulties faced by teachers during this period. 22 600 teachers in 75 regions of the country were participated in the survey. The availability of devices for con- ducting video and audio lessons and working with online platforms was evaluated among teachers and pupil. At the time of the survey only 25% of teachers conduct- ed video lessons. Rural schools and schools in small and medium-sized towns are at risk due to the small numbers of devices for online classes in families. In addition to problems with technical support and low speed of Internet connection teachers point out the lack of training materials on online platforms from such subjects as music, art, additional education and adapted manuals for children with disabilities. The current situation in 6 regions was reviewed separately: Saratov Oblast, Kras- nodar Krai, Zabaykalsky Krai, Omsk Oblast, Murmansk Oblast and Sakha (Yakutia) Republic.
Regional education authorities may be interested in this research as an objective assessment of the transition to distance learning and to build integrated work to eliminate the most actual problems.
The advent of the new coronavirus hinders the fragile welfare of migrant workers. Those economic sectors with a large migrant workforce appear to be those hit hardest during the lockdown, resulting in surge in migrant unemployment and a plunge in the volume of remittances. This has become yet another factor putting pressure on the gross domestic product (GDP) growth, balance of payments, and budgets of countries that are net remittance recipients, while also triggering rising poverty levels. This paper evaluates the impact of the current pandemic (and respective economic downturn) on remittance inflows to recipient countries and tackles the potential contribution that international financial institutions could make to alleviate the adverse economic aftermath. In Central Asia and Southern Caucuses (except Azerbaijan) emergency financing granted by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank covers 9–20% of the overall size of the annual remittances received. This financial support could be rendered insufficient due to the sharp decrease in the volume of remittances, decline in tourism revenue, and weakening economic activity, while the poor quality of state institutions may hinder the efficient distribution of accumulated resources. In Europe, the IMF and the World Bank provided approximately $7.7 billion in financing to low- and middle-income countries for such purposes as economic stabilization, support for population welfare, and financing of internal/external deficit, of which $5 billion is represented by the new Ukraine-IMF Stand-By Agreement. With the exception of Ukraine, Macedonia, and Bulgaria (the latter having received no loans/grants so far), the cover index for European remittance-recipients stands within a range of 2–18% over 2019 remittance inflows.Therefore, it is most feasible that the current 2020 GDP growth forecasts made by the IMF, the World Bank, and local governments are inaccurate in the light of the insufficient financial support provided by international financial organizations. Additional pressure on the GDP figures might stem from further extension and/or toughening of the lockdown period, as well as from uncertainty regarding the revival of regular business activity and the timeline for resuming migrant remittances.
The coronavirus epidemic caused not only an explosion of attention in Russian public communication, but the media discourse content also transformed radically during the first months of the 2020 epidemic: from distrust and panic to responsible balanced content. An analysis of this phenomenon allows for a deeper understanding of the evolution of the value-normative characteristics of modern society broadcast in the media. There is a trend of a transition from ill-conceived propaganda of rights to a balance of rights and responsibilities as well as an increase of attention in public discourse to free speech. In addition, there is a trend towards a transition from the dominance of post-truth to manifestations of personal freedom as responsibility. The dynamics of the coronavirus discourse not only fit into this general civilizational trend, but they provided additional impulses for the trend’s further development. Such a shift in emphasis makes it useful to appeal to the concept of parrhesia - a free and responsible "taking the floor" (“word-taking”).
This issue represents options for solving the problems that emerged in schools in connection with the switch to distant learning. The response of schools to the crisis is being analyzed in terms of teachers, who try to compensate their lack of professional skills, changes in curriculum, in work hours and duties of collaborators, overcoming the lack of funds and resources for distance learning, overcoming the deficit of constructive behavior with parents. In issue there is a special section with management recommendations for administrators of institutions and public education authorities.
It is sociologically significant that the pandemic showed a widespread crisis of the legal system, and at the same time, changes in the concepts of normal and emergency situations. The system of international law was not ready for a pandemic, although what was happening was global. Along with the crisis of international law, the universal criteria of legality disappeared. It is the legality of many measures in various countries that can be called into question, albeit some of them were nearer to the ideal of procedural purity than other.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.