Water Conservation and Wastewater Treatment in Brics Nations
Water Conservation and Wastewater Treatment in BRICS Nations: Technologies, Challenges, Strategies, and Policies addresses issues of water resources—including combined sewer system overflows—assessing effects on water quality standards and protecting surface and sub-surface potable water from the intrusion of saline water due to sea level rise. The book's chapters incorporate both policies and practical aspects and serve as baseline information for future adaption plans in BRICS nations. Users will find detailed important information that is ideal for policymakers, water management specialists, BRICS nation undergraduate or university students, teachers and researchers.
Water Conservation and Wastewater Treatment in BRICS Nations: Technologies, Challenges, Strategies, and Policies addresses issues of water resources—including combined sewer system overflows—assessing effects on water quality standards and protecting surface and sub-surface potable water from the intrusion of saline water due to sea level rise.
Global warming is leading to a wide range of dramatic impacts caused by changes in surface temperature and precipitation, and increases in the frequency and scale of extreme weather events, such as floods and droughts. Climate change is occurring much faster than the global average in Russia. The water problems associated with the impacts of climate change have been very diversified due to the country’s huge amount of territory and vary substantially depending on season, economic activities, and population. The observable changes and impacts have already been dramatic in many areas, with high economic costs and loss of human life. The projections related to future climate change are even more worrisome and alarming: the threat to water resources will increase, possibly leading to huge losses. Large-scale adaptation and resilience measures are required in most Russian regions to avoid dangerous consequences in the near and medium term; however, the country still has a very weak adaptation policy, places a low priority on climate action, and employs poor proactive decision-making even in the most vulnerable areas. Climatic risk-management tools and adaptation of a national strategy will be essential elements for water management under conditions of heightened climate change in Russia.
Indigenous technical knowledge (ITK) as a part of a holistic body of knowledge accumulated by aborigines has attracted increased attention in recent years. This type of knowledge represents context-specific intellectual resources and includes skills and technologies, which are underestimated in the light of the modern scientific and technological (S&T) knowledge and underutilized by decision-makers. Numerous studies conducted in this area approved a high degree of accessibility, affordability and adoptability of ITK as well as its ability to improve the local sustainable production and quality of life. However, water resource management was only mentioned in few of the studies and slightly examined by those scholars, whereas the global problem of insufficient supplies of fresh water is rapidly escalating. To address this issue and fill the knowledge gap, this chapter aims to investigate national and international ITK in the water management field and identify the ways of its capturing, preservation and dissemination in Russia.