Gendering Post-soviet space: Demography, Labour market and Values in Empirical Research
Earning has been traditionally prescribed to male identity, while housekeeping management to the female. The opening of the labor market for women partly weakened gender inequality and the connection between gender and economic performance. However, that decision only opened a “male” economic role for all and kept the “female”-governing household expenditures underestimated. Based on the data of 37 in-depth interviews with middle-class housewives from Moscow, Russia, carried out between 2014-2019 using grounded theory methodology, the chapter reconstructs two lines of argumentation used by women to justify that management of household expenditures can be chosen as a main economic activity without the shame of failing modern gender standards. The first one is denoted as a “consumptive thrift” or “frugal approach.” It explains expenditures of a household as a form of saving and a way to obtain control over the family’s budget and needs. This approach uses economic rationality to suppress impulsive decisions and emphasize the similarity with actions of earning. The second logic is described as “consumption as social reproduction” or “abundant approach.” It points to the dissimilarity between female-driven spending to male earning. In this view, household expenditures make the family a domain of recovery, satisfaction, and relational work that is impossible without the satisfaction of desires.
Work through online labour platforms, which match freelancers and clients located anywhere, gained prominence in Russia and Ukraine over the past decade. Using survey data of online freelancers in Russia and Ukraine, this chapter inquiries into gender specifics of online work. It shows that some important structural gender differences in online work exist in both countries. These differences are primarily manifested by gender segregation into different sectors of activity. These structural gender differences, along with gender differences in online tenure, working hours, and family responsibilities, translate into persisting gender differences in earnings in both countries. Despite this, women seem to be happier with online work than men (in Russia), or at least as happy as men (in Ukraine). The chapter discusses the reasons and potential policy implications of these findings.
This chapter is dedicated to the gender pay gap (GPG) in Russia. First, it provides a review of the existing literature, covering key studies published in international and Russian academic journals. This investigation distinguishes between studies examining GPG in the 1990s and those analyzing the later period, briefly describing their focus and key findings regarding traditional economic explanations of GPG: differences in the amount of human capital between genders, family factors, industrial and occupational employment segregation, and discrimination. Second, this chapter presents and discusses the results of the standard Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition of GPG during the period from 1994 to 2018, by using RLMS-HSE micro-data. Finally, it formulates a few stylized facts and conclusions concerning the size, evolution, and sources of GPG in Russia and outlines some promising avenues for future research.
This chapter aims at disclosing the interrelationships of economic activity, support for gender equality, individualistic values and income in Central Asia. The authors use the 6th wave of the World Values Survey (2010–2014) to test empirically the association between employment, values and income for Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan and Russia. Gender equality attitudes in these four countries do not differ much from each other. In general, the societies are quite conservative in their evaluation of the women roles. The effect of gender equality on employment varies across the mentioned four countries. Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan show that support for gender equality is negatively related to self-employment. The pattern in Russia is the opposite. Gender moderates the relationship between support for gender equality and employment status in the Central Asian countries, as distinct from Russia. The evidence from Russia demonstrates a strong and positive association between selfemployment and individualism. However, in Central Asia individualism is a weak predictor for employment status.
Post-Soviet countries have experienced historical periods, political regimes, and socio-economic systems that differ fundamentally from each other and have adopted diverse values and norms, which have inevitably influenced the nations’ gendered labor market structures. This chapter considers the differences in labor market position between young men and women in 10 post-Soviet countries over time. The main research question is whether young women in these countries have attained labor market statuses as intensive (in terms of working hours) and high (in terms of job positions) as those of their male counterparts over the last three decades. The study uses World Values Survey cross-section data (1981–2014) as a database. The target group is employed youth aged 18–29 years. Contrary to the initial hypothesis, a time-trend analysis reveals a trend towards differences in job position between young men and women in post-Soviet countries. The results of two binary logistic regressions demonstrate that being a young woman in post-Soviet countries decreases the probability of being employed full-time but that Russia is following the opposite trend. In addition, being a young woman in Russia and Kazakhstan increases the probability of holding a supervisory position relative to the probability for a young man.
In this chapter we analyze the factors of elderly men and women’s employment as well as the most effective strategies for maintaining employment after pension (retirement) age. The main research question is the following: to what extent factors influencing the decisions to keep employment in old age and to change jobs before or at the pension age are different for men and women? To answer this question, we formulate the following hypotheses: (1) women take into account family factors more often than men when they decide whether to keep employment after retirement age; (2) probability of elderly women’s employment is increasing even at a moderate salary, while for men only a high salary is significant; (3) elderly women tend to keep the same job after retirement age whereas elderly men prefer to change a job or profession.
The chapter has the following structure. In the first section, based on Rosstat and international (OECD, ILO) data, we analyze the main trends of Russian elderly men and women’s employment, including pensioners’ employment, in comparison with foreign countries. In the second section we provide a brief description of employment policy and pension system in Russia, focusing on those aspects that may influence the decision to work in old ages. Third section presents the theoretical framework of the analysis and the results of the previous empirical research of Russian elderly employment. Fourth section focuses on the data and methodological approach of our study. The empirical part of our research is based on RLMS-HSE data for 2010-2017. Finally, in the fifth section we present and describe the empirical results.