ХОЛОДНАЯ ВОЙНА МЕЖДУ США И СССР (1945–1991). ОЧЕРКИ ИСТОРИИ.
The phenomenon of the cold war arose as a consequence of the manifold changes that took place in the world as a result of the second world war. Only the USSR and the USA emerged from the flames of the second world war as powerful and independent world powers, thus becoming pillars of the bipolar world. Instead of the deideologized competition of the great powers typical for the "European concert", a confrontation between the Soviet Union and the United States unfolded under irreconcilable ideological slogans, and the presence of nuclear weapons left an indelible imprint on the course of this confrontation.
The cold war, of course, was not limited to the confrontation between the two "superpowers". The political and ideological confrontation between the so-called "free world” and the so-called "camp of peace and socialism" somehow affected the relations between the East and the West of divided Europe, between the States of the Asia-Pacific region; the metastases of the cold war penetrated into Latin America (Cuba). And the cold war became the reason for many "hot" conflicts in the "third world” countries.
Nevertheless, it was the United States and the Soviet Union that took the initiative in starting and conducting the cold war, and when, for a number of reasons, the Soviet-American confrontation came to an end by the end of the 1980s, the global cold war between the "first" and "second" worlds came to an end.
In recent years, the ideological conflict between Russian nationalism and American liberal idealism, which seemed to have been finally overcome after the end of the cold war, has returned to Russian-American relations. Thus, the Russian side faces a difficult task: to reduce the ideological component in Russian-American relations and, accordingly, to increase the share of Realpolitik in these relations. It should be noted that Moscow and Washington had to solve a similar problem during the cold war. We have already mentioned that Soviet-American détente of the 1970s was made possible only after and in the United States and the Soviet Union, although for different reasons, weakened superpower messianism.