Изотекст-2011: Статьи и комиксы
The article raises the issue of plagiarism in comics. In recent decades comic books broke free of its culturally imposed limitations (when they were discarded as cheap entertainment dictated by commercial considerations) and gradually became the subject of interest for literary critics. The main reasons of this shift of attitude were the so-called iconic turn and the recognition of the fact that the literature itself as well as its production and perception conditions have changed due to increasing influence of alternative, hybrid media. Not the last role in this process played comic adaptations of well-known works of literature. Asian comic artists whose strips continue conquering comic markets in nowadays Europe and America fully realized the promising potential of such recoding and started including not only their own literary tradition, but also the western one into the field of their work. They use world literature as a wide reservoir of motifs, characters, images, topics and writing styles and technics which prove to be productive for the own creative vocabulary. However, sometimes quite naïve, unreflective or too literal transference of original text into comics result in common opinion that the lack of creative ability makes comic artists look for and then steal ideas elsewhere or that such works have no artistic value because they do not differ from illustrated books and thus do not add much to the original text. Such critics forget, though, (putting aside the fact that comics as medium have their own internal gradation) that in Asian cultural tradition borrowing and copying are not considered as something improper, on the contrary the ability to do the same thing as one’s predecessors but in a slightly different way was seen as a sign of artistic perfection. And yet, the question whether comic artists whose books are based on literary sources may claim for originality or can be accused of plagiarism stays open. In this article we tried to introduce our vision of this problem while selecting as material for analysis the work of Korean comic artists Han SeungHee und Jeon JinSeok which is called One Thousand and One Nights.
Kamishibai (from ‘kami’ meaning paper and ‘shibai’ meaning drama - literally paper drama) is an unusual form of manga which was popular in Japan in the 1930s-1950s. This visual experience consisted of a series of illustrations being shown accompanied by an oral commentary. An examination of Kamishibai reveals some interesting facts and explains why Japanese comics flourished after the Second World War.
Japanese culture is famous for unique folklore, where monsters called yokai have become very popular. The visual appearance of many yokai occurred in the Edo period (1603-1868) and came to us thanks to the books printed by woodblock printing. The irrepressible imagination of Japanese artists of that time gave rise to amazing creatures, who continue to inspire filmmakers, animators and comic book authors to this day.
This book is the second publication on manga research in the field of Russian Japanese Studies. It contains articles by Russian and Japanese scholars who discuss various aspects of manga. The book consists of three parts.
The first part focuses on shōnen manga genre and addresses such themes as manga-links with art, postmodernism influence, manga adaptation of literature, virtual worlds reflection in manga, comics as media of historical memory and manga expression theory.
The second part illuminates genre of Japanese female comics and researches of leading experts. It includes articles about the history of shōjo manga style and the origins of shōnen-ai genre, an analysis of character “girl dressed as boy”, an investigation of gender studies in manga and also such themes as family problems reflection in Takaya Natsuki’s works and female mode of address in seinen manga.
The third part examines formal elements of manga such as flashbacks.
 The first publication “Manga in Japan and Russia: Otaku Subculture, History and Anatomy of Japanese Comics” was released at Moscow in 2015.
Discusses the works of Japanese manga authors of the 1970s – Takemiya Keiko and Hagio Moto, who created a new genre shounen-ai (boy’s love). This genre of manga is intended for female audiences and developed in Japan, but was experienced a considerable influence of European art, especially French literature and cinema.
After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, a foreign culture poured into Russia in a powerful stream. The books of previously banned writers are beginning to be published, and comic books are also being actively promoted, including Japanese manga, about which former Soviet citizens heard for the first time. The spread of manga (and anime) abroad begins only in the mid-1980s, but already in the 1990s its first samples have reached Russia. Therefore in 1995 the first volume of Nakazawa Keiji's "Barefoot Gen", dated to the 50th anniversary of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, was published on Russian. But a year earlier another manga was released, today it can be considered the very first manga translated into Russian. It is symbolic that this was manga "Black Jack" by Tezuka Osamu. Thanks to Tezuka Osamu manga was developed into a huge industry during the postwar period and later was able to compete with American comic books and French comics band desine. Tezuka was a doctor by education and in this manga he combined his medical knowledge with the profession of mangaka. The main character Black Jack became a sort of Tezuka Osamu alter-ego and gained a great love of the readers. However, the existence of such a character, unlike, for example, American Mickey Mouse, was hardly known in Russia, so the first issues of Japanese comics were not in great demand. Despite this, in the narrow circle of domestic fans of Japanese animation and manga (otaku) the need for such kind of cultural products was brewing. In the late 1990s, with the development of computer technologies, amateur translations of manga on the Web, including the Russian-speaking segment of the Internet, are widely spread. There are exist informal publishers who publish an unlicensed manga (piratka) on paper. Subsequently, some of them are retrained into official companies, which will mark the appearance of the first Russian publishing houses translating manga in the early 2000s. In this regard, it is important to trace the contents of these works and the specifics of their publication, as well as the experience of publishers, who decided to translate Asian comics into Russian.
The article illuminates a literary genre kaidan, which in Japanese means "stories about the extraordinary". The characters of such stories are usually fantastic creatures called yokai, whose visual image came to us thanks to the woodblock prints of the Edo period artists, and was later popularized in modern Japanese pop culture with a light hand of manga author Mizuki Shigeru. This theme is quite extensive, but in this article only talks about two aspects – the story of Mimi-nashi Hoichi and the motive of the eyes in mangas by Mizuki Shigeru, Hino Hideshi, Takahashi Yusuke, Maruo Suehiro and Hirano Kota.
In this paper we describe the design and development of a multi-touch surface and software that challenges current approaches to the production and consumption of comics. Authorship of the comics involves drawing the ‘top level’ of the story directly onto paper and projecting lower-level narrative elements, such as objects, characters, dialogue, descriptions and/or events onto the paper via a multi-touch interface. In terms of the impact this has upon the experience of reading and writing, the implementation of paper is intended to facilitate the creation of high-level overviews of stories, while the touch surface allows users to generate branches through the addition of artifacts in accordance with certain theories about interactive narratives. This provides the opportunity to participate in the reading and authoring of both traditional, paper-based texts and interactive, digital scenarios. Prototype comics are used to demonstrate this approach to reading and writing top-level and low-level narratives.