Тотальные институты: очерки о социальной ситуации психически больных пациентов и прочих постояльцев закрытых учреждений
The general purpose of the study is to consider private/public interaction within a public place – Anticafe – with the help of Frame Analysis by E. Goffman. The results could advance our understanding of the logic of social construction of space.Tasks: 1) characterizing the practical production of private space within the public space in terms of frame-analysis;2) getting a list of keying for visitors antikafe / open spaces;3) getting a «legend» for each antikafe / open space on the basis of identified "signifying practices";4) comparison the «legend» of antikafe / open space and the observed behavior of visitors.Anticafe is usually described as an «unobstructed place, where people can meet and communicate». It is certainly a public place, however, it provides an opportunity to feel «at home», i.e. latently permits the transformation of the public space into the private one. The lack of understanding of how people use public space and how they draw boundaries between their «private» and «non-private» zones can be an obstacle for designers to create better public places in urban environment.The initial model is based on Frame Analysis by E. Goffman and the theory of the space invention by M. de Certeau. Participant observation and thick description provide a record of behaviors of Anticafe’s visitors. The estimated number of the objects (Anticafes) is three: “Ziferblat na Pokrovke”, “Local Time” and “Lodge”. The duration of observation includes one weekday, Friday and day-off (approximately 5-6 hours per observation) for each object. All the practices and situations were recoded into several frames (“At home”, “On a visit”, “In Café”, “In the Office”) and final results are presented as a list of keying.The research has shown that the monitoring objects, known as formally «equal», in fact turned out to be three different models of social organization of space, which implies different ways to regulate the conduct of individuals. People consciously design a private space within the public through a variety of practices. Varying degree of «privatizing the space» during the interaction allows individuals to solve the conflict of frames.
The main purpose of the article is to codify the theoretical resources of the sociology of everyday life. The author focuses on the two research programmes of the contemporary sociology of everyday world: the frame theory and the practice theory. The author reveals basic conceptualizations of practice-orientated sociology and frame-analysis, their constructive features; analyses their inherent axiomatics and logics, trying to find their theoretical implications for the sociology of everyday life in particular and the sociological theory in the whole. The method of codification used by the author - description, distinguishing constitutive features of the basic conceptualizations, reconstructing the logic and pointing to the theoretical implications - is also the object of critical reflection in this article.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.