Государство всеобщего благосостояния
Religion or Communist Legacy? The Influence of Religion on Welfare Attitudes in Europe
The paper studies whether welfare attitudes of the Europeans are effected by religiosity of individual- (via degree of religiosity and religious affiliation) and contextual-level (via predominant religion and average religiosity). Results of multilevel statistical analysis performed on the data from ESS-2008 for 27 countries of Europe suggest that religiosity is negatively associated with welfare support as well as being a Catholic or a Protestant. On the contrary, Orthodox Christianity leads to substantive increase in welfare support among respondents as both individual religious affiliation and predominant religion. Finally, in countries without Communist experience religiosity is visibly associated with decline in welfare support, while in PostCommunist countries all respondents are similarly supportive of welfare provision, and more religiosity does not lead to decline in welfare support.
The monograph analyses both the Great Depression as "the black years" of capitalist world-system and alternative ways out the greatest crisis of the capitalist economy. Authors give main attention F.D. Roosevelt's "New Deal" as the Great Reform in USA but they considers also alternative European ways out the Great Depression (fascism versus liberalism corrected). A special attention is dedicated to mutual influence of Soviet and American economies during socialist industrialisation and "New Deal".
Chapters analyses the making of national models of Welfare State as a responce to challenges of the Great Depression and the Second World War. A special attention is dedicated to the British "new liberalism" inspired by J.M.Keynes and W.H.Beveridge as well as the Swedish social-democratic Folkhemmet. The macroeconomic bases of USA development after F.D. Roosevelt's reform are considered separately. Scientific and techical, agricultural and military-industrial aspects of USA's leadership in the capitalist world-system are characterized.
The purpose of this article is to explain the reasons for the low involvement of non-governmental organizations in Russia in the provision of social services by the state order. This entails in uncovering ways to overcome barriers to the expansion of the share of the non- governmental providers. The main challenges of the reform are considered from different sides: (1) through comparison of the expectations from the reform with the results that it gave in the developed countries over the 30 years of the reform of the welfare state, (2) from the point of view of the interests of the for-profit and non-profit organizations, (3) through the identification of the discrepancy between the emerging heterogeneity of service providers and the prevailing nature of the public governance in Russia.
It is shown that the main barrier to the expansion of the share of non-state organizations in the provision of social services is the low capacity of the social service market, which makes the market entry risky. This applies to both the charitable and the competitive market for social services. If they were more developed they could serve as a source of market maneuver and a reliable alternative to state contracts in case of failure to obtain them. For the reform to succeed, the state must be prepared to finance not only the contracts themselves, but also the development of competition and alternative markets, including quasi-market mechanisms to increase the effective demand of the population. In addition, the pluralism of state regulation should comply with the plurality of vendors and terms of service.
The paper addresses the question, what is the underling nature of the Russians’ demand for the state support in three fields such as labour market and employment, social investments, and material support. Based on the recent findings from social policy studies, the authors have tested four different mechanisms, which are as follows: (a) demographic features of the population, (b) household incomes and disposable assets including human and social capital, (c) interests, and (d) locus control and cultural settings. Drawing on the all-Russia representative Monitoring survey conducted by the Institute of Sociology of the Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 2018, the authors argued that population’s demands for the state support has very complex nature. Moreover, the relative impact of income has a paradoxical nature. On the one hand, the Russian data confirm the hypothesis of ‘altruistic reach’ developed in recent studies, which predicts that, in societies with high inequalities, higher incomes boost the probability of demands for the redistributive settings. On the other hand, higher incomes foster state escapism of those Russians who do not consider state as a reliable agent capable to solve their problems.
Gendering Postsocialism explores changes in gendered norms and expectations in Eastern Europe and Eurasia after the fall of the Berlin Wall. The dismantlement of state socialism in these regions triggered monumental shifts in their economic landscape, the involvement of their welfare states in social citizenship and, crucially, their established gender norms and relations, all contributing to the formation of the post-socialist citizen. Case studies examine a wide range of issues across 15 countries of the post-soviet era. These include gender aspects of the developments in education in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Hungary, controversies around abortion legislation in Poland, migrant women and housing as a gendered problem in Russia, challenges facing women’s NGOs in Bosnia, and identity formation of unemployed men in Lithuania. This close analysis reveals how different variations of neoliberal ideology, centred around the notion of the self-reliant and self-determining individual, have strongly influenced post-socialist gender identities, whilst simultaneously showing significant trends for a "re-traditionalising" of gender norms and expectations. This volume suggests that despite integration with global political and free market systems, the post-socialist gendered subject combines strategies from the past with those from contemporary ideologies to navigate new multifaceted injustices around gender in Eastern Europe and Eurasia.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.