Материалы Всероссийской научно-практической конференции с международным участием «ПРОФИЛАКТИЧЕСКАЯ МЕДИЦИНА – 2017»
Materials of the all-Russian scientific-practical conference with international participation
Objective: Glioblastoma is a highly aggressive and invasive brain and Central Nervous System (CNS) tumor. Current treatment options do not prolong overall survival significantly because the disease is highly prone to relapse. Therefore, research to find new therapies is of paramount importance. It has been discovered that glioblastomas contain a population of cells with stem-like properties and that these cells are may be responsible for tumor recurrence.
Methods: A review of relevant papers and clinical trials in the field was conducted. A PubMed search with related keywords was used to gather the data. For example, “glioblastoma stem cells AND WNT signaling” is an example used to find information on clinical trials using the database ClinicalTrials.gov.
Results: Cancer stem cell research has several fundamental issues and uncertainties that should be taken into consideration. Theoretically, a number of treatment options that target glioblastoma stem cells are available for patients. However, only a few of them have obtained promising results in clinical trials. Several strategies are still under investigation.
Conclusion: The majority of treatments to target cancer stem cells have failed during clinical trials. Taking into account a number of biases in the field and the number of unsuccessful investigations, the application of the cancer stem cells concept is questionable in clinical settings, at least with respect to glioblastoma.
Data management and analysis is one of the fastest growing and most challenging areas of research and development in both academia and industry. Numerous types of applications and services have been studied and re-examined in this field resulting in this edited volume which includes chapters on effective approaches for dealing with the inherent complexity within data management and analysis. This edited volume contains practical case studies, and will appeal to students, researchers and professionals working in data management and analysis in the business, education, healthcare, and bioinformatics areas.
Little is known about the burden of common mental disorders in Russia despite high levels of suicide and alcohol-related mortality. Here we investigated levels of symptoms, self-reports of ever having received a diagnosis and treatment of anxiety and depression in two Russian cities.
The study population was men and women aged 35–69 years old participating in cross-sectional population-based studies in the cities of Arkhangelsk and Novosibirsk (2015–18). Participants completed an interview which included the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 scales, questions on whether participants had ever received a diagnosis of depression or anxiety, and health service use in the past year. Participants also reported current medication use and medications were coded in line with the WHO anatomical therapeutic classification (ATC). Depression was defined as PHQ-9 ≥ 10 and Anxiety as GAD-7 ≥ 10.
Age-standardised prevalence of PHQ-9 ≥ 10 was 10.7% in women and 5.4% in men (GAD-7 ≥ 10 6.2% in women; 3.0% in men). Among those with PHQ-9 ≥ 10 17% reported ever having been diagnosed with depression (equivalent finding for anxiety 29%). Only 1.5% of those with PHQ-9 ≥ 10 reported using anti-depressants and 0.6% of those with GAD-7 ≥ 10 reported using anxiolytics. No men with PHQ-9 ≥ 10 and/or GAD-7 ≥ 10 reported use of anti-depressants or anxiolytics. Use of health services increased with increasing severity of both depression and anxiety.
There was a large gap between symptoms and reporting of past diagnosis and treatment of common mental disorders in two Russian cities. Interventions aimed at improving mental health literacy and reducing stigma could be of benefit in closing this substantial treatment gap.
Given many developing economies depend on primary commodities, the fluctuations of commodity prices may imply significant effects for the wellbeing of children. To investigate, this paper examines the relationship between child mortality and commodity price movements as reflected by country-specific commodity terms-of-trade. Employing a panel of 69 low and lower-middle income countries over the period 1970-2010, we show that commodity terms-of-trade volatility increases child mortality in highly commodity-dependent importers suggesting a type of ‘scarce’ resource curse. Strikingly however, good institutions appear able to mitigate the negative impact of volatility. The paper concludes by highlighting this tripartite relationship between child mortality, volatility and good institutions and posits that an effective approach to improving child wellbeing in low to lower-middle income countries will combine hedging, import diversification and improvement of institutional quality.