Чекисты на скамье подсудимых
The article reviews social context of repressions during the Great Purge. The main focus is made on the specific features of terror's events, specifically - on the interpretation of social ties as a basis of "counter-revolutionary organizations". This interpretation turned prisoners' relationships with neighbors, colleagues and personal friends into acts of conspiracy. The author proves the struggle of the government against informal ties between participants of political, economical and cultural institutions. Political campaign against "clans", "workingmen's cooperatives" etc. served as a basis for social politics of RCP(b) and AUCP(b) in the 1920s-1930s. The Great Purge was aimed to deconstruct existed both professional and personal social relationships between Soviet citizens. It was a basis for production of atomized individuals and as cogs in state's machine. The destruction of existing social ties allowed the power to organize new social politics aimed to organize the society into productive "collectivity". Pressure against other forms of association whether they were territorial, based on friendship and even kinship, was proclaimed to be the war against "gruppovschina". The purpose of total collectivization of the society required terror and repressions.
The book examines two main topics related to the culture of the Spanish Republican exile in the Soviet Union: cultural centers of Spaniards in the USSR and the participation of Spanish exilées in Soviet cultural projects such as the review 'La Literatura Internacional' (later, Literatura Soviética) and the Spanish department of the publishing house Progress, in the period from 1937 until the 70ties. It's the first general study of the culture of the Spanish community in the Soviet Union based on the documents from the Spanish and Russian archives, news papers and journals, and testimonies of the Spanish exilées in the USSR.
The collection includes scientific, literary, journalistic materials and interviews of culturologists and literary critics from different countries (Germany, Georgia, Poland, Russia, USA, etc.), as well as observers of post-Soviet transformations of Russian-Georgian relations. The main task of the research is to highlight the current topics and perspectives of modeling the new reality of this literary and cultural field within the framework of interdisciplinary and international dialogue. It was literature that provided useful material that allowed us to look behind the scenes of geopolitical narratives, since politically significant thought categories are inextricably linked with both literary images of Russia and Georgia, and with the Russian-Georgian myth. If in the Soviet era, this myth contributed to the almost ritual study of the history of relations between the two peoples, since the second half of the 1980s it has become a kind of Foundation for political, military, as well as, as it seemed, and cultural division of the once "fraternal republics".
The author shows motives and methods of falsifications in the activity of NKVD officers at the time of Great Terror. An example of Perm NKVD officers is a focus of this micro-historical analysis. The main sources include the files of so called «counterrevolutionary crimes’ trials» in the State Contemporary History Archives of Perm Region. The most useful documents are examination testimonies of Perm NKVD officers. These sources correlate with a great number of evidences of the victims of political repressions. Available sources permit revealing both the motives and methods of falsification work of Perm NKVD officers. The subject of inquiry is an illegal activity of executors who were NKVD officers of mean and lower rank. Using mass falsification allowed them to construct fabulous plots which were supposedly hatched by “public enemies”. Those NKVD officers, together with their leaders, became co-organizers of Great Terror. The analysis of the sources permits stating that daily work of NKVD officers in the years of Great Terror was not in conducting inquiries but in providing mass falsifications based on forgery, violence, etc.
The paper deals with the problem of Soviet-Finnish scientific-technical cooperation in the mid-1950s - mid-1960s as well as the role of specialists who worked in the "new Soviet area" of the Karelian Peninsula and Ladoga Karelia which became a part of the USSR after the Soviet-Finnish war in 1941-1944. The article examies the mechanisms of cooperation between the states as well as it effects on enterprises of the former Finnish territory.
Review of the book "Children of the Gulag". This groundbreaking book offers a comprehensive documentary history of children whose parents were identified as enemies of the Soviet regime from its inception through Joseph Stalin's death. When parents were arrested, executed, or sent to the Gulag, their children also suffered. Millions of children, labeled "socially dangerous," lost parents, homes, and siblings. Co-edited by Cathy A. Frierson, a senior American scholar, and Semyon S. Vilensky, Gulag survivor and compiler of the Russian documents, the book offers documentary and personal perspectives.