Эволюция концепции устойчивого развития в контексте исторических процессов
This paper presents the problem of interdependence and interconditionality of the concepts "sustainable tourism" and "sustainable development of tourism". The relevance of the topic chosen is associated with the problem of sustainability of tourism development in the conditions of global instability as the modern tourism is a rapidly developing social and cultural phenomenon which dynamics is based on a system of human interaction with the world. Being in the center of the research field, tourism is related to the modern global processes and is hardly exposed to their influence that is reflected in the change of its qualitative and quantitative characteristics. The tourism being one of the steadily developing branches of the world economy is the industry almost in all countries that has valuable potential opportunities in terms of creating a different kind of economic interests, and attracts more and more attention. The potential opportunities of tourism include: improving balance of payments, access to new investment resources, the increase in state revenues, creation of new jobs, development of public utilities, and others. The paper provides an overview of the literature on the issue of sustainable development of tourism. We give the principles and indicators for sustainable tourism development. The carried out analysis allowed us to determine some of the basic principles of sustainable tourism development taking into account the conceptual arguments in favor of development, sustainable development, and sustainable tourism development.
The concept of sustainable development (SD) is aimed at preserving life on Earth and ensuring a decent level of life for the present and future generations. It is based on the values of conservation of natural resources, responsible consumption and ethical business practices, and confronts modern global challenges. The transition to SD implies a revision of existing values in the economics, ecology and social life of society. In this regard, education plays the most important role because it is responsible for the formation of the attitudes of the younger generation, and progress in the transformation of formal and informal institutional frameworks. In order to realize these processes, The UN has developed the global program "Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)" and formulated one of the specialized goals in the system of seventeen sustainable development goals approved by the UN for 2016-2030. Higher education plays a special role there, since it not only creates and disseminates knowledge about SD, but also influences the process of making future decisions by managers of various levels. In this context, the concept of “sustainable university” is becoming highly relevant and the experience of its practical implementation is gaining special importance. The purpose of this work is to overview the research papers of Russian and foreign authors to identify the specific features of a sustainable university as a necessary element of ESD.
In upcoming decades, the Baltic Sea States will face considerable challenges with regard to population ageing. In the majority of the countries (Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, the Russian Federation and Sweden), between 31% and 28% of the population will be 65 years or older in 2050. For the remaining countries (Denmark, Estonia, Iceland and Norway), the corresponding numbers range between 27% and 24% (UN Population Division, 2001). This disproportionate age distribution yields significant social and economic consequences, mainly due to a shrinking labour force and increasing financial imbalances within the region’s social security, pension and healthcare systems. Sustainable policies are needed to address the causes and consequences of demographic change, as population ageing will have strong impacts, not only on economic growth, but also on social cohesion (between social groups) and social sustainability (between generations) within the region. Therefore, it is essential to learn more about how to best make use of the resources at hand by fostering active and healthy ageing, and increasing the labour force participation of older people.
In this volume, 11 chapters are dedicated to describe the specific situation in each of the Baltic Sea State countries. The authors are researchers with profound expertise of the national situation of the workforce participation of older adults, whose articles compile the national status quo, highlight pathways of reforms in the retirement system, and provide evidence- based policy recommendations for prolonging working lives. Thus, the discussion paper provides thorough evidence and enables debate of the issues at hand from a comparative perspective, as well as in light of the Baltic Sea States region as a whole.
Importance and Methods Article is devoted to revealing the author's approach and methodological tools to measure sustainable development of industrial enterprises. Proposed combination of static and dynamic approach significantly expands the possibilities of methodical evaluation, allowing more deep justification of the pattern of management solutions on sustainable development of industrial enterprise.
Results The article presents the results of testing the author's methodological tools on the example of three industrial enterprises of Perm. The authors calculated the individual indicators of sustainable development at the economic, environmental and social spheres, and then defined their static reference values, and then, in dynamics, calculated the rate of change and built dynamic standards with their use. Then the calculation was made on group static and dynamic indicators for each area and integrated static and dynamic indices. Combining static and dynamic evaluations allowed displaying the pattern of each company’s position in the matrix of complex evaluation of the level of sustainable development of industrial enterprise.
Conclusions The research has shown that the positions of the analyzed companies are concentrated in the quadrant of the matrix, which is characterized by a balanced tempo characteristics in dynamics, it also revealed discrepancies between the actual values of indicators and their normative (or recommended) values in static. To overcome the situation, management decisions need to be made to improve the indicator values, to bring them to the normative level, while maintaining balanced tempo characteristics of the indicators over time. Each of the investigated companies has been proposed a number of practical recommendations, briefly reflected in the present article.
Nowadays, one of the most imminent problems facing power systems in post-industrial countries is the sustainable development of power systems under conditions of increasing power consumption irregularity due to the reduction of the industry’s share in consumers’ demand for electric power. In today’s Russia, this issue is becoming very acute due to the significant share of electric power and heat co-generation that is demonstrating low manoeuvrability and poor adaptation to operations in the daily variation of electric power demand. This paper considers the problem of improving the power system steady-state through the optimization of the production structure of thermal power plants. We propose a combinatorial algorithm that improves the planning of the structural and technological modernization of the power equipment configuration, with a glance at the forecast of the increasing irregularity of power consumption.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.