Higher Education in Federal Countries: A Comparative Study
Higher Education in Federal Countries: A Comparative Study is a unique study of higher education in nine federal countries—the United States, Canada, Australia, Germany, Mexico, Brazil, Russia, China and India. In this book, leading international scholars discuss the role of federalism and how it shapes higher education in major nation-state actors on the world stage. The editors develop an overarching comparative analysis of the dynamics of central and regional power in higher education, and the national case studies explain how each federal and federal-like higher education system has evolved and how it functions in what are highly varied contexts.
The book makes a major contribution to higher education studies and defines a new field of comparative analysis. It also provides important insights into comparative governance and the study of federalism and federal arrangements, with their particular historical, political, legal and economic dimensions.
The institution of the university comprises one of the most important actors within national, regional or metropolitan economic systems. Typically, metropolitan universities are seen in terms of components of the respective national economic system. However, the object of our research is the institution of the regional university, which is defined in terms of a regional economic actor. There are various models for analysing the impact of universities on the regional economies. Several studies have studied this phenomenon in terms of providing employment, increasing expenditures and exporting educational services to other regions. However, in emphasising the role of universities in regional economies within the knowledge economy, most contemporary researchers consider the university as a major producer of scientific knowledge. Different "helix" models and models of university engagement are constructed in the context of this position. In order to overcome problems concerning terminological and methodological diversity, we propose to employ an institutional approach to the analysis of economic phenomena. Institutions are understood as comprising a set of formal and informal norms, as well as the mechanisms required to implement their conformance with these norms. The aim of our study is the development of a typology of institutions of scientific knowledge generation according to the different phases and stages of scientific production. In order to avoid an artificial gap in the subject-object relation, we analyse the problem on the basis of the methodological unity of actors, stakeholders and institutions, as well as their interactions with the environment (natural, political, social, economic and cultural). For the classification of institutions, several dimensions were referred to: the stages of knowledge generation (production, exchange, dissemination and consumption); management functions (planning, organisation, control and motivation). The model of circulation of explicit / tacit knowledge SECI developed by Nonaka and Takeuchi for the corporate sector is also thought to be relevant in this connection. On the basis of this model, we have identified the institutions of socialisation, externalisation, combination and internalisation of knowledge. The results of the study will be used in the further analysis of case studies of universities, both in Russia and elsewhere.
Universities are a powerful attractor of youth, including remain the main resource for preserving and attracting talent to the regions. In this study, we have analyzed two main peaks of youth migration - “school-university” and “university-labor market”. The relevance of the study is due to the development of regional systems of higher education, taking into account the positive forecast of the demographic growth of young people, as well as an increase in the rate of growth of educational migration. In addition, we have carried a qualitative analysis of the motives and factors of educational migration on the example of applicants from several regions of the Russian Federation.
The modern system of higher education involves the active introduction of a practice-oriented approach, which is based not only on the educational process, but also on the formation of the student’s personality. The implementation of a practice-oriented approach implies that students acquire not only practical but also social competencies that they need for their future professional activity. Project activity HSE is presented as a separate type of educational activity of students as part of the educational program with credit units. The project seminar is an educational form of organizational and educational support for project activities. Not directly related to the forms of project implementation, the project seminar aims to form students' project competencies, skills of project interaction and project management. The practice of implementing a project seminar on undergraduate programs began in 2014, on graduate programs from 2018. This study is devoted to the analysis of the practice of project work of undergraduate students in educational programs of economic profile. The study is based on the analysis of the HSE – Perm, the survey involved 117 respondents, of which 8 teachers, 5 customer representatives and 104 students from different courses (the sample corresponds to a confidence accuracy of 95 % and an error of 10 % with a total population of 983 students).
Research question. Since 2014, HSE has been implementing a special practice of project-oriented training in undergraduate programs, which is to implement projects and a project seminar and to involve students in practical programs (applied projects). This practice has methodological support in the form of local regulations, but, in fact, there are ample opportunities for educational programs on the features of implementation. At the same time, a large number of participants were included in the process of implementing this practice and, in order to identify common benefits and difficulties in implementing such an approach, we launched this study. Accordingly, the purpose of the study is to evaluate the practice of introducing project-oriented education on the example of undergraduate economic programs at HSE – Perm, identify problems and identify ways to improve this process.
Based on the full-time enrollment data in the Russian universities in 2011—2016, the paper provides an analysis of gender-related preferences among the applicants. Specialties where the share of the representatives of the same gender exceeded two-thirds on a regular basis are marked as «male» or «female». Those specialties where there is relative parity of men and women are referred to as «neutral». Almost all the male specialties are related to engineering; simultaneously, engineering sciences are not presented in the «neutral» and «female» groups.
An analysis of the Unified State Exam average score used by applicants to apply for the target program reveals that the results presented by female applicants are higher even if the program is «male». However, women having more choice opportunities this way do not use them to the full extent: only few male-dominated programs show a steady growth in the share of women. In such a situation, where the number of men enrolled in engineering programs significantly exceeds the number of women is typical not only for Russia but also for many EU countries. A series of studies points to the influence of popular gender stereotypes on the career choices of men and women as a major reason behind this phenomenon.
Sustainable development is a worldwide recognized social and political goal; it is discussed both in academic and political discourse. According to the authors, the formation of a new way of thinking will help to achieve this goal. A lot of research is related to sustainable development in higher education. However, mental models are formed even more effectively at school age. The paper was written in the context of Russia, where the subject of sustainable development in education is extremely poorly developed. The case of Ural Federal University was presented. The University has been working for several years on the creation of a device for the purification of sewage industrial water in the framework of an initiative student group. Recently, schoolchildren have joined this work. Such projects have been called university-to-school projects. Successful solution of inventive tasks contributes to the formation of mental models. The case has been analyzed in terms of institutionalism. The authors argued the primacy of mental institutions over normative in the process of sustainable society construction.
anotation to the book is not available
This book constitutes the proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Massive Open Online Courses, EMOOCs 2019, held in Naples, Italy, in May 2019.
The 15 full and 6 short papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 42 submissions. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have marked a milestone in the use of technology for education. The reach, potential, and possibilities of EMOOCs are immense. But they are not only restricted to global outreach: the same technology can be used to improve teaching on campus and training inside companies and institutions.
The chapter 'Goal Setting and Striving in MOOCs. A Peek inside the Black Box of Learner Behaviour' is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license at link.springer.com.
This paper summaries the experience of a group of tutors making research-oriented seminar for masters’ students during the period of 2011–2015 years. For standard curriculum enhancement, the following methods were used: the balanced scorecard, subject-oriented approach for learning process modeling, e-learning platforms, virtual seminar concept, and many others.
the article is devoted to the issue of provision of regional systems of higher education with public funding per students, how much the current system of distribution of public funding corresponds to demographic trends and the forecast of the number of potential students. The forecast of the population at the age group of 17-21 years showed that starting from 2019, the Russian higher education system will be subject of increased pressure from applicants. This is caused by the expiration of “demographic hole” of the 1990s. The current guarantee of financial support for higher education at the expense of public funds (at least 800 students for every 10,000 people from the age group of 17-30 years old) can be carried out until 2024 without increasing the volume of public funding. However, the implementation of this standard is provided only by reducing the age cohort of 25-30 years. The ratio of the predicted values of the number of potential applicants and the importance of demand for regional higher education systems allowed us to identify the donor regions, the deficit regions and the recipient regions. An analysis of the current distribution of public funded places between regions of Russia made it possible to identify territorial imbalances that negatively affect the ability of school graduates to receive higher education free of charge in their home region.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.