English for historians
The textbook is aimed at students of history department.
The collection of artilcles is devoted to the 70th anniversary of the well-known Russian archaeologist, the Director of South-Don archaeological expedition - Viktor Pavlovich Kopylov. In the articles of his colleagues and friends from various countries there are disscussed actual problems, which in different grades are connected with the scientific interests of the Anniversarian. The collection presents materials on the history, archaeology, numismatics and epigraphics of the North Pontic region of antique and early Medieval times.
Currently, the main source for the reconstruction of the most ancient history of humankind is archeology, which almost by definition makes it possible to restore only just a few elements of the most ancient human culture (naturally, almost exclusively – material culture). A mere introduction of comparative linguistic data makes it possible to significantly refine our reconstruction of a respective culture. If a certain linguistic Urheimat may be localized in space and in time within the area and lifespan of a certain archaeological culture, this suggests that we may have an idea of the language spoken by respective population, as the application of comparative linguistic methods allows us to reconstruct the vocabulary of the carriers of the respective protolanguage, that makes it possible to identify a set of terms denoting the realities of family organization, political attitudes, beliefs, etc. A very important part of the reconstructed vocabulary is constituted by the kinship terminology. As is well known (and as is demonstrated in this article again), the kinship terminology displays rather strong correlations with respective types of kinship organization, which could allow to reconstruct important features of clan and family structure of the respective populations. This reconstruction can be further verified by using archaeological and genetic data. It is demonstrated that the papers presented at the International Workshop ‘Murdock and Goody Re-visited: (Pre)history and evolution of Eurasian and African family systems’ that was organized in April 2015 by the Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology suggest that we are close to having all the necessary ingredients to undertake such a program of a deep historical reconstruction.
The article discusses the changes undergone by historical themes and heroes of ancient Chinese history in the poetic texts of the Ming period (fourteenth to seventeenth centuries) collected by the noted anthologist Shen De-qian (1637–1769) in his Ming shi be cai. In later verse, poets increasingly tend to abandon the simple historical analogy – which was typical of the earlier poetic tradition – in favor of the symbolic game based on the age-old typification of historical figures: the “hero,” the “villain,” the “avenger.” In doing so, they diverge from the typical historical narrative with its attention to subtle detail and gradation of moral assessments. The hypothesis advanced in the article is that, for lack of a consistent mythology and a fullfledged epic tradition in China, historical figures eventually begin to perform the function of the heroes of myths and epic narratives, eventually supplanting them, whereas the historical narrative – e.g., the Historical Records (Shi ji) by Ssu-ma Qian (ca. 145–85 B.C.) – becomes, in a manner of speaking, a source of quasi-mythological or pseudo-epic subject matter.
Papers of the International Conference on Classical Philology and Ancient Studies.