English for historians
XVth vol. of the annual almanac on the history and culture of antiquity
The chronicle "Shoku nihongi" (Continuation of "Annals of Japan") was compiled in 797. It is a logical continuation of the mytho-chronicle text "Annals of Japan" ("Nihon shoki"). "Shoku Nihongi" is the main source of the history of Japan at the end of the 7th - 8th centuries and contains valuable information on the political, ideological, institutional, social, economic, diplomatic and cultural history of this time.
The article is devoted to military service of K.P. von Kaufman, famous Russian statesman of the second half of the 19th century, during the first stage of his career in 1840s–1850s. This period of his biography had not been studied in details until now. Meanwhile, just during his service in the Caucasus and participation in the Crimean War, Kaufman gained his first experience of relations with oriental peoples and states as the soldier and diplomat. That experience was very important for him later, when he had became a Governor-General of Turkestan Region (1867–1882). Valuable source of information on the “Caucasian” period of life and activity of K.P. von Kaufman are the memoirs of his contemporaries who served with him. In contrast to official documents (such as orders, service records, etc.) these notes contains details on Kaufman’s service, and much information about his talents and abilities, the personal features reflected during his “conquer and organization” of Turkestan.