BRICS Innovative Competitiveness Report 2017
The Report predicts that the coming five years will witness the five countries keep improving in national innovative competitiveness, with China and Russia maintaining their strong growth momentum, India growing at a moderate rate, and Brazil and South Africa gradually picking up speed and climbing out of the trough. It estimates that the five countries’ national innovative competitiveness will be keeping steady growth by 2030.
The General Reports part presents a comprehensive analysis of the current status and achievements of STI cooperation between China and other BRICS countries and proposes priority areas of BRICS STI cooperation to provide valuable decision inputs for the BRICS countries to accelerate the improvement of their national innovative competitiveness. The Country Reports part respectively analyzes and makes predictions on the national innovative competitiveness of the BRICS countries based on a survey of their STI development and STI cooperation within the BRICS framework. The Thematic Reports part focuses on four thematic areas closely related to STI, i.e. digital economy, financial inclusion, energy, and agriculture, and offers detailed analysis of the STI development and potential of the countries in relevant areas, providing additional inputs for a further understanding of the national innovative competitiveness of the BRICS countries.
The foreign economic activity of Russia has undergone major changes lately. Shift from the European partnership towards cooperation with the BRICS and CIS countries leads to the territorial rearrangement of the economic structure. To the maximum extent all these factors impact on development of the export regions. Under the conditions of changing foreign economic priorities determination of future prospects of such regions is an objective of the research work the results of which are reflected in this article.
Analysis of the experience of the BRIC countries shows that there is no single model that provides a qualitative economic result under any circumstances. The non-identity of the notions of growth and development was confirmed: the latter, in addition to improving quantitative indicators, implies the qualitative development of key social parameters. The most important among them: a high level of human development, technological and scientific potential of the economy, spending on research and development.
Science, technology and innovation are crucial driving forces in the development of a country and a nation and of the entire human society at large. The competition in comprehensive national strength, in essence, is the competition in science, technology and innovation. In the backdrop of globalization, a country which has strong science, technology and innovation capabilities is more advantageously positioned in the division of labor in industries and better able to create new industries and can own more advanced intellectual properties needed to achieve further development. Science, technology and innovation hold the golden key to discovering new fountainheads of growth and unlocking dormant growth potential. Although the global economy remains sluggish overall, a new round of scientific, technological and industrial revolution is creating new historic opportunities as new concepts and new sectors such as “Internet+”, 3D printing and smart manufacturing emerge and new technologies keep coming up, especially in artificial intelligence, information technology, life science and biotechnology, opening up unprecedented opportunities and development impetus, also with a massive potential of transforming traditional industries. In addition, science, technology and innovation play an irreplaceable basic role in the effort to respond to global challenges and can not only effectively promote the addressing of global challenges such as climate change, food shortage, resource depletion and poverty but also accelerate the achievement of the goals set forth in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development for the benefit of the entire humankind.
The global economic and political landscape is undergoing profound changes as the world enters a period of rapid transformation development strategies or adjusting their existing ones with greater prominence given to the role of innovation in the leading and underpinning development to strengthen their strategic arrangements for innovation⁃driven development, in a bid to improve their international competitiveness and seize the initiative in global competition Science, technology and innovation (STI) are recognized as the golden key to the door to growth In this trend of the times, the BRICS countries are spearheading the development of developing countries and attracting international attention with their highly innovative and distinctive development strategies Meanwhile, the BRICS as a bloc has become an exemplar of STI cooperation of developing countries.
As the rotating chair of BRICS in 2017, China will host the 9th BRICS Summit in Xiamen in September In the lead⁃up to the summit, the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (MOST) hosted the 5th BRICS Science, Technology and Innovation Ministerial Meeting in Hangzhou in July, where BRICS STI ministers had in⁃depth discussions and reached wide consensus on topics including STI policy, cooperation in priority areas, and co-funding for multilateral research projects The BRICS Action Plan for Innovation Cooperation and the Hangzhou Declaration
To support the work relating to BRICS STI cooperation under the Chinese presidency, China Science and Technology Exchange Center (CSTEC), as entrusted by MOST, established a High Level Expert Group of leading professionals The High⁃level Expert Group complied theBRICS Innovative Competitiveness Report 2017, in collaboration with the science and technology sections of Chinese embassies in other BRICS countries and STI think tanks in other BRICS countries Based on the latest available data, the Report of the BRICS STI cooperation, and presents country and thematic studies on the STI development of BRICS countries.
The Report consists of four parts, with a total of 12 sub⁃reports Part I two general sub⁃reports: an analysis report which evaluates and forecasts the national innovation competitiveness of BRICS countries and their STI cooperation and strategic priorities; and a research report on the priority areas BRICS STI cooperation for win⁃win results This part evaluates the comprehensive national innovative competitiveness of the BRICS countries since 2001 and forecast their innovative competitiveness in the next five years It also assesses the current status and progress of China's STI cooperation with other BRICS countries, and identifies priority areas of BRICS STI cooperation, support for BRICS countries to strengthen their national innovation competitiveness Part Ⅱ presents six country reports, which evaluate, analyze and forecast of the national innovation competitiveness of the BRICS countries and studies of their STI cooperation within the BRICS framework Part Ⅲ presents four thematic reports, which focus on the four thematic areas to STI, including digital economy, inclusive finance, energy, and agriculture, elaborate the STI development and potential of the individual BRICS countries in those areas, and provide valuable inputs for the BRICS countries' national innovation competitiveness Part IV contains appendixes, including an introduction to the related indicator system BRICS STI cooperation.
The ideas of Global South and Global North today seem to have substituted the previous geo-political notion of an East–West divide as well as the concepts of the First, Second and Third worlds. The chapter discusses self-description of Russia in terms of the four cardinal points: East, West, North and South starting from eighteen century onwards. The author draw from the rich reservoir of Russian literature and philosophy.
The term 'Global South' marks a new attempt at providing order and meaning in the current global political constellation, replacing the term 'Third World'. But the term 'Global South' is fraught with many ambiguities. These eight essays explore the possible meanings of this new distinction and assess the advantages and disadvantages of adopting it. They cast a wide exploratory net, looking beyond the dominant politico-economic meaning to how the way that we interpret the world has changed over time and the wider cultural–intellectual meanings. Key Features Asks whether 'Global South' and 'Global North' are useful for understanding the current global constellation Analyses the recent global transformation that allegedly made the 'Third World' disappear and the 'Global South' emerge Explores how space is used for different but overlapping purposes: to build socio-political concepts, to criticise recent trends in global developments and to develop a normative angle for collective political action Draws on global history, conceptual history, comparative literature, social and political theory, political philosophy and social history to develop a full, interdisciplinary picture of the uses of 'South' and 'North'.
Internationalisation—together with massification, globalisation and, one should also add, innovation—is key for understanding contemporary academia. Science and scholarship, of course, were always international: one can recall Plato learning in India or the scholars of the early modern period somehow united across Europe in the international Republic of Letters. However, academia has never previously known the truly global circulation of minds (talent and resources) that we experience nowadays. The chapter is devoted to the analysis of the internationalization projects in the BRICS countries.
This article deals with the nature and degree of influence of service liberalization on the participation of BRICS countries in global value chains (GVCs). The authors used econometric analysis to determine the inverse relationship between barriers in infrastructure services and the degree of countries’ participation in global value chains. Using data on the structure of trade in goods and services in terms of value added, they analyzed the situation of developing countries through the example of the BRICS countries of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa in production and service GVCs. They found China and India to be the most deeply integrated in the international production and service chains. Russia, Brazil and South Africa are included in production value chains more as suppliers of raw materials and intermediate goods with low added value, but nonetheless have significant potential to expand their participation in international production systems, in particular by improving the infrastructure necessary for GVCs. Based on the study of liberalization of certain service sectors in BRICS countries, the authors noted the positive impacts of reducing barriers in maritime, rail and air transportation and of finance for improving the quality and reducing the cost of services. In many respects, these effects were the result not only of reducing barriers in services, but also of implementing measures to increase a country’s investment attractiveness. The article concludes that the liberalization of infrastructure services industries can become one of the tools for integrating the BRICS countries into GVCs. However, this liberalization should be part of a broader development strategy that includes trade and investment policy measures to increase participation in global production and the overall economic development of the country.
The dynamic development of the BRICS countries not only amazes the imagination of researchers, but encourages them to turn to the analysis of the power groups of these countries, because despite all the differences in the systems of recruiting and rotatins, they have anaged to achieve economic success. Elites are a key element of the management system, which plays a decisive role in any state of the system, and even more at the stage of its significant transformation. Exactly the transformation in the BRICS countries was the process of modernization in the late twentieth and early twenty-first century, which resulted in a significant increase in the economic power and political influence of the countries in this group. At the same time, the system of formation of elites in the BRICS countries is not just different: they contrast dramatically and historically, which is not accidental: the BRIC member states vary enormously in historical genesis and social experience, models of political development and social structure, economic development and foreign policy priorities. This circumstance prompts the author of this article to turn to a comparative analysis, for, as G.-V.-F. Hegel, the essence is best recognized when crossing its limits. Comparison of the four BRIC members is a methodologically challenging task, since the problem of comparability common to comparative political science takes on particular urgency in connection with the nonobviousness of the grounds and comparison criteria in this case. The author examines the specifics of the recruitment and rotation of political elites, which enabled them to become key actors of modernization in the BRICS countries. The accession to the group of the Republic of South Africa in 2011 was added to the abbreviation "S". In this article, the analysis will be carried out in respect with the "first composition", without South Africa.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.