Нормы и мораль в социологической теории: от классических концепций к новым идеям
The collective monograph presents the results of the theoretical and historical-sociological research of the normative grammar of social action as well as the moral infrastructure of social order. The research was based on the in-depth analysis of the relevant mainstream and also rather peripheral ideas and concepts of classical and modern social theory, cognitive science and the ‘new’ sociology of morality. Among the main topics of the monograph are the theoretical re-interpretation of the concept of “norm” in an interdisciplinary perspective, the mechanisms of normative morphogenesis, structures of group and professional morals, and theoretical examination of risk-responsibility link in everyday moral evaluations. In addition, historical-theoretical reconstruction of some classical sociological theories is used for outlining new prospects in theoretical interpretation of the processes of normative change and crystallization and also of the multiplicity of normative systems. The book will be useful to readers in many different fields of social sciences and humanities, including those studying sociology at advanced level. It also will make an immediate appeal to the general reader familiar with contemporary social theory.
While many past theoretical discussions on nature of social norms were centered on a problem of their precise definition, I propose an analysis of peculiar character of sociological theorizing about norms which is grounded in a wider interdisciplinary context (particularly, on sociologically relevant implications from H.L.A. Hart’s and H. Kelsen’s views on law and norms) and based on systematization of principal norm-related questions which varying types of theories attempt to answer, i.e., nature of norms, social mechanisms of their maintenance and change, analytic and empirically-based distinctions between norms and rules and conventions, irreducible complexity of norms, etc. Besides, the chapter presents a systematic review of classical and modern approaches to elucidation of intricate relations between multiple normative systems, e.g., law and morality. I also discuss some recent arguments against moral relativism in social sciences brought forward by S. Lukes.
In this chapter I make an attempt to reconstruct the risk-responsibility link. On the one hand, the analysis departs from the concept of risk, assuming that the interpretation of this concept – as a danger, a probable event or a rational decision – will inevitably impact on the conceptualization of the normative dimension and, in particular, understanding the specificity of responsibility. On the other hand, I propose a classification of responsibility types that allows to make explicit the specificity of responsibility within each approach to risk analysis. Elicitation of the normative dimension in existing risk-responsibility link interpretations helps me to identify “blind spots”, i.e. ways for further theoretical elaboration of this link. E.g. I describe the possibilities for integrating a normative dimension into studies based on an understanding of risk as a decision.