Education in Figures
The pocket data book contains main indicators characterizing trends in the development of general as well as lower and secondary vocational and higher education in the Russian Federation. It also covers key education for OECD countries/
The question whether an ontology can safely be replaced by another, possibly simpler, one is fundamental for many ontology engineering and maintenance tasks. It underpins, for example, ontology versioning, ontology modularization, forgetting, and knowledge exchange. What ‘safe replacement’ means depends on the intended application of the ontology. If, for example, it is used to query data, then the answers to any relevant ontology-mediated query should be the same over any relevant data set; if, in contrast, the ontology is used for conceptual reasoning, then the entailed subsumptions between concept expressions should coincide. This gives rise to different notions of ontology inseparability such as query inseparability and concept inseparability, which generalize corresponding notions of conservative extensions. In this chapter, we survey results on various notions of inseparability in the context of description logic ontologies, discussing their applications, useful modeltheoretic characterizations, algorithms for determining whether two ontologies are inseparable (and, sometimes, for computing the difference between them if they are not), and the computational complexity of this problem
This article analyzes social and cultural adaptation of Korean youth in the former USSR in 1920s–1930s. After the March First Movement in 1919, the Korean youth were cruelly prosecuted by the Japanese gendarmerie. Thousands of young Koreans were forced to leave their homeland and seek shelter in Manchuria or the Russian (Soviet) Far East. The adaptation of Korean youth to economic, political, and cultural life in Soviet Russia had several stages, as they sought to obtain legal status and find a niche in the production chain sufficient to sustain their long-term existence in a strange land. Each turning period in Russian history transformed the mentality and sense of national identity of Korean youth, and consequently Korean culture and language underwent transformation. With each transition period, the Korean migrants’ native language was used less and less in public places, and over time, it was spoken only among family and friends. Thus, the Koreans gradually became integrated into Russian culture and the Russian language became their primary language of communication.
The aim of the work is to create applications for execution of practice works on the stand NI ELVIS II by National Instruments using augmented reality. To form proposals and obtain information about existing objects and the conditions for their interaction with virtual objects. The scheme of the development object is described, its main blocks are indicated.
The information designed for the mobile operating system Android. A user holding a smartphone in their hand (or donning a special helmet) bring the device to the workstation. When the object camera is placed on the laboratory stand, the application starts the algorithm for comparing the captured image with the base markers, after which the analysis result appears on the screen. The user can be tested on the current laboratory work by testing their knowledge.
The paper traces the level of bilingualism in several highland villages of Daghestan (Northeast Caucasus) through the 20th century. We show that historically, men were more multilingual than women, but this was not true to the same extent for all languages. Highlanders’ repertoires suggest a correlation between the social function of the second language and the degree to which its command was gendered. We also explore the dynamics of multilingualism from the generation born at the end of the 19th century to the generation born in the 1990s. We show that during the 20th century local L2s were gradually displaced by Russian, and Daghestanian multilingualism lost its gendered character. We argue that these changes were caused by the introduction of Soviet schooling.
The article describes the current model of intergovernmental relations in Russia and explains how it was formed in the 2000s, as well as demonstrating its effects in one sphere of public administration, namely education. Based on theoretical perspectives on the expected and unexpected effects of decentralization, authoritarian politicians’ motives and central governments’ strategies aimed at overcoming the principal-agency problem, the author hypothesizes that decentralization realized under the conditions of an authoritarian government in geographically, ethnically and economically complex societies produces a kind of trap: concentration on administrative decentralization intensifies the principal-agency problem while the authoritarian rulers’ interests limit the potential for employing effective means to overcome it.
By the eighteenth century, medicine was grappling with rapidly expanding knowledge and technologies (Williams, 2000). So that multiple standards of care for the same condition were not in conict, specialties based on physician affinity developed out of generalist practice. By the late twentieth century, nations diverged in a number of specialties earning official recognition, but a singular trend of growth in specialization was unchanged. Specialization may seem to be ornamentation that denotes technical prowess and knowledge advancement, but it is essential in that it alters workforce self-organization and delivery of care, and channels patients into more finely distinguished pathways of care.* Specialization legitimates medical professionalism in the public eye, especially when physicians validate the importance of generalists. In 1999, major medical organizations promulgated a “Charter on Medical Professionalism” that espoused professionals, including specialists, as activists in healthcare reform.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.