Focus on Translation (English into Russian). Учебное пособие по переводу с английского языка на русский
The article considers the nature and character of the language units which form the basis of the translator’s knowledge of language and the skills needed to use them. The author looks at some specific characteristics of translation, such as its heuristic nature, various conditions, special requirements for the translated text. The analysis of the influence of these factors on translator’s work suggests that professional autonomy and skills of self-directed learning are essential for a translator. The author supposes that translator’s language knowledge is made up of “communicative fragments”, a concept introduced by B. M. Gasparov, which reflects the nature of language resources used by our language memory. The author then considers the skills a translator needs to identify and use communicative fragments in his work, as well as some additional skills of using reference works, language management and maintenance skills. Developing these skills can result in higher-quality translations and provide conditions for continuing professional development of a translator.
This research studies the influence of professional competence of EFL learners on their metaphor production. The task was approached through analyzing metaphors in the English written texts produced by Russian students with different competence in economics – the non-professional and professional competence level. Findings highlight similarities and divergence of metaphor use in L2 writing in terms of learners’ professional competence. The results of comparative analysis of specific features in metaphors produced at different professional competence levels reveal the quantitative and qualitative differences of what functions metaphors are used to perform and to what extent they are used accurately. With the shift from the non-professional to the professional competence level learners are able to use metaphors that combine a function of presenting abstract concepts with a discourse organising function in a more balanced way and make much more use of creative metaphors, and their metaphor production tends to be less influenced by L1 background. Practical recommendations suggest an improved research methodology for studying metaphor production in ESAP as well as a deeper understanding of ESP content and its structure.