Дошкольная среда обучения чтению и читательская грамотность детей при поступлении в первый класс и в конце четвертого класса по данным PIRLS 2001–2011 гг.
This publication presents Russia results in PISA 2018. It also shows the dynamics of PISA scores in the 2000-s. The changes in different types of reading skills are presented as well as the proportion of functionally illiterate students. Besides the scores, the data that describes schools climate, including attitude to school, bullying, discipline in class, are analysed. Some issues related to the provision of schools with resources are being addressed.In addition, the social and territorial inequality of educational outcomes in Russia is described. In particular, PISA 2018 allows us to compare the results of the Moscow region and the Republic of Tatarstan with the average scores in the country. Based on the analysis, authots make basic hypothesis about possible changes in Russian education that can be associated with Russia results in PISA. At the end, the publication proposes some steps that could help to improve educational outcomes of Russian students. The publication will be interesting to a wide audience of specialists engaged in educational policy and practice, as well as to researchers of educational inequality and education quality factors.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.