«Се человек и дело его…»: Конфессионально-этические факторы старообрядческого предпринимательства в России
The research is devoted to confessional-ethical factors of Old Believers entrepreneurship in Russia at the end of 17th 19th centuries. In the pioneer study are identified and analyzed confessional values, moral institutions and aims of Old Believers, which advanced their effective entrepreneurship (devotion to labor, notion of property, entrepreneurship and etc.) Is scrutinized the formed ethics of Old Believers economic activity. Conclusion is done about the transformation of Old Belief to a confessional-economical community, which development represented a non-etatist modernization alternative to the state one.
Women in Old Belief played the major sotsiokonfessionalny role. Their recognized learning in the Writing and the Legend led to that "cenobitic ranks", that is rules of Christian life and rescue stored in Old Belief families of the woman. Playing the dominating role in functioning of a confessional educational network, women brought considerable also in consolidation of this confessional community and ensured unprecedentedly high gender status in community.
The edition represents the collection of articles written on the basis of reports at the scientific conference "320 anniversary of the Vygovsky convent and modern problems of Old Belief" which was taking place on November 3-4, 2014 in Daugavpils, Latvia. The collection is devoted to history of the largest center of Old Belief of the first half-fault of the 18th century - Vygovsky convent, and also economic history of Latvian Old Belivers.
The report is devoted to the large Russian businesswoman Maria Morozova. As it in general is characteristic for many Russian businessmen from Old Believers, Morozova showed not "ostentatious" piety in the titanic charitable efforts, in the most active way promoted a development of education in the country and supported formation of new system of management at factories of Corporaton of Savva Morozov the Son and Co.
In the article is analyzed the use of corruption by the old believers in Russia in the 18 – first part of the 19th century to counteract the repressive tendencies of the state politics towards the old belief, to preserve and strengthen the old believers communities. The author makes a conclusion on the meditative character of such a defensive-corruption system, which was salving the negative sides of the state politics and was ensuring further development of old believers entrepreneurship.
The collection of articles covers a perspective of history of Russian entrepreneurship. The main subject of articles - factors of formation of ideas of property and business in Russia XVII-XX centuries.
In Old Belief position of the woman was peculiar. The woman needed to observe religious norms and precepts. Founding fathers of Old Belief equalized men and women in a saving feat: "We Smesitsya in one herd with celestial forces, – the archpriest Habakkuk, – both men, and women, both fellows, and girls wrote". Respectively, calling "truly believing" to firmness, he recognized for women the active spiritual force capable of fight for true belief. As a result the female divinity in old belief developed within three centuries and in many respects influenced the special status of the woman in an Old Belief community.
The article considers the most important legislative acts regulating the entrepreneurial activity in Russia in the 18th-the early 20th centuries, which evolved in response to changing political and economic conditions in the country and were aimed at further liberalization of trade and industrial activities.
The scientific almanac contains articles on various problems of history of Old Belief. In articles political, economic problems of history of Old belief, and also evolution of culture of Old Belief community are analyzed. The almanac includes historiographic reviews and information on scientific actions.
The factors of territorial placement of the Old Believe centers in late 18th - to the first half of the 19th century, moved from the periphery to Moscow and Petersburg, the largest commerce and industry enclaves of the European Russia come to light in the article. Under the influence of social cultural tradition and the spiritual concept released from etatism "Moscow – the Third Rome" Moscow became the main confessional center of leading denominations.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.