Коммуникация в современном поликультурном мире: массовая коммуникация и языковая личность
This article emphasizes the importance of the ability to speak in public. The article reviews the practices in gain knowledge of speaking in public successfully. It deals with major problems that speakers face while making presentations. Particular attention is paid to the necessity of analyzing the audience before delivering a presentation and adapting to it during the performance. It is pointed out that it is essential to keep the attention of the audience and maintain your credibility. Some advice is given to possible ways of how to react to audience’s feedback on your speech and adjust what you say to make it clear, appropriate and convincing. Giving a speech has been listed one of the greatest fears people have. In this concept it is discussed why this nervousness occurs and what can be done about it. One of the major problems inexperienced speakers have to overcome is performance anxiety; advice is given on how to deal with it. Adequate ways of reacting to interferences and disturbances are also discussed.
The article is concerned with some approaches to definitions of blending as a word formation process, its morphological, semantic and functional characteristics based on the linquo-didactic principles of language awareness and consciousness, communicativeness – in terms of l2 learner concept, wherein an L2 learner has aptitudes for: interpreting foreign language activities, actualizing intellectual processes and integrating critical thinking skills. The findings have revealed linguists’ incomprehension of blending as a word formation process. However, an array of templates for creating blends (alongside analytical research approaches) pave the way to productive teacher-student collaborative work on developing critical awareness of new blends during morphological and semantic analyses by means of various methods: distributional, componential, descriptive, transformational. Such analytical work is aimed at delivering connotative meanings of morphemes; identifying notional transitions, the degree of recognizability, a range of combinability of blend components; delineating blend-word functioning in a particular context. Amid word formation activities, some blend formation differences should be highlighted: high-rate creativity; wordplay engagement; interplay between orthography and pronunciation; superficial similarity to other word formation processes, i.e. compounding, clipping, abbreviation, acronyms; euphony – as a key factor for the regulation of deleting or maintaining source words elements; unpredictability, marginality. Overall, blending qualifies as a multi-functional word formation process which can be used in a variety of language styles. Accordingly, to provide students with insights into the linguistic view on the world, English language teachers should give instruction aimed at developing the lexical competence and stimulating student interest in analyzing blends.
The article studies the correlation between emotional and cognitive competences of students during the course of academic writing in English and their influence on writing skills development, particularly, the ability and desire of learners to mitigate their academic stance expression. In the process of academic text production there can arise negative emotions, which block learners’ thinking abilities. Understanding these can help students cope with them and also boost the thinking process. The development of emotional competence is also seen in the context of academic writing learning because due to cultural peculiarities Russian students tend to be categorical in their utterances and excessively emotional. The results of the experiment, with 30 participants studying at a university, show that emotional and cognitive competences can be crucial constructs in learning skills in the context of explicit academic writing teaching. Introducing the theory of emotional intelligence to the students as a means of pedagogical exposure has shown a positive effect on the learning process; due to comparatively well-developed cognitive abilities the student succeeded in applying the interpersonal component of emotional intelligence in writing for understanding the reader’s perception.
The article is devoted to the matters of poetry translation and gives a contrastive analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s poem “So that you remember me not an hour or a year” and its English version suggested by Christopher Whyte. The article is focused on the transformations (voluntary – conscious as well as subconscious; and involuntary – caused by the difference of the language material, e.g. diminutives, impersonal constructions characteristic of the Russian language which lack in the English language etc.) made by Whyte when translating the original text. The comparative analysis showed that in the translation the following sense generating elements of the original were lost: the form of folk spell in which the original is written; the song form of the poem, which refers the reader to a Russian folk song genre “chastushka; folk vocabulary; the image of a seven string guitar; the magic halo оf a magician around the figure of the speaker of the poem and the “Spanish colour”. As the result of this is, in the English version the tension between stylistically low – folk and high – romantic characteristic of the original disappears. The translation, like the original, has qualities of a song but it gives a sensation of a romantic song, exclusively. The translator “modernizers” Tsvetaeva’s poem: he leaves capitals in the beginning of the lines only when it is allowed by the punctuation, and converts rhymed syllabo-tonic verse into unrhymed free verse.
The article deals with the concept of ethnocentrism, understood as evaluating facts of life and other peoples through the prism of own traditions and values. The concept of ethnocentrism can be found in research on cross-cultural communication in various spheres. Aiming to develop intercultural competence as the result of teaching foreign languages, philologists tend to describe ethnocentrism as destructive, preventing their students from obtaining the target language native speakers’ world picture and creating a bi-cultural of poly-cultural identity. At the same time, by analyzing sociologists’ and psychologists’ approach to ethnocentrism as integral for human nature and critical for maintaining one’s positive ethnic identity as well as ethnic group solidity, one may reassess its role in foreign language teaching. If we accept the positive role of ethnocentrism, we might shift the focus from overcoming it to developing it from radical to flexible, which would allow for accepting all the varieties of cultural filters of reality and making our learners more adaptable and successful participants of cross-cultural communication.
The article analyses approaches to defining “learning environment”, “multicultural learning environment”, “virtual learning environment” together with a number of related terms. Massive open online courses (MOOCs) are viewed as a multicultural virtual learning environment enabling the users to engage into intercultural communication. A special focus is made on the problems of intercultural interaction, namely, “cultural incidents” arising from the sociocultural ignorance of the communicators.
The paper considers a peer assessment technology for in the international IELTS exam preparation as a part of English for specific and academic purposes course at the Faculty of Business and Management of the Higher School of Economics for "Business Informatics" speciality. The novelty of the presented model of training consists in developing the technology of peer assessment of a written statement, including seven consecutive steps, as well as rubrics and assessment algorithms created to improve the quality of students performance. The results of the research have shown that the use of the peer assessment technology contributes to a more conscious students’ engagement in the learning process, and in the process of self and peer assessment, maintains motivation at a high level and facilitates the development of critical thinking skills needed for the future professional life. Therefore, peer assessment technology can be effectively integrated into the English language course curriculum (ESAP module) at the National Research University “Higher School of Economics”.
The subject of the article is the description of the woman's fragrant image in the context of romantic relations between the sexes, understood as an expression of anxious feelings for each other. The author analyzes text fragments, describing scenes of communication between lovers. The analysis shows that the main thematic area in describing the natural female olfactoryтуыы is the nomination of a physiological effect on a partner who senses the existential necessity of perceiving the smell of a beloved woman who gives birth to the desire for physical affinity. To verbalize this effect, metaphors are used that represent the smell of a woman by an aggressor acting peremptorily, without regard to the situation of meeting him.An important means of describing female olfactoryness in romantic discourse is the so-called synesthemia or odor-emotional synaesthesia, which is a smell like a life-sustaining food, like a quenching drink or a veil enveloping the beloved woman with an invisible cloud.A separate visual series of olfactory evaluation of a woman's natural smell is represented by stereotyped comparisons with flowers and fruits, i.e. images, traditionally presented as sources of fascinating aroma. In this case, the main "bearers" of the smell are the hair and the open skin of a woman as the main sources of the pheromone signal.
In conclusion, the author constructs a cognitive model of female olfactoryness that connects all the described linguistic facts into a single, logically connected scenario.
Political discourse has always been one of the most powerful tools of exerting considerable influence on the audience. This may be explained by the fact that it is usually broadcast on the radio or television and printed in newspapers. In other words, political discourse always reaches the addressee in one way or another. This is also the reason for a careful choice of linguistic material, which can help to influence the audience’s opinion. In addition, in order to interpret the discourse correctly one should be aware of the context in which this discourse is created. To illustrate this idea, it is reasonable to turn to the notion of intertextuality, which enables the author to broaden the scope of his/her discourse and to add new shades of meaning to the words uttered by means of an explicit or implicit appeal to other discourses. However, this only becomes possible if the addressee can identify such a link, i.e. he/she possesses the same knowledge and experience as the author. Allusions to music can serve as one of the most illustrative examples of interdiscursivity as they may be recognized by a considerable number of people. Therefore, they can convey the necessary meaning to the addressee. Barack Obama has always employed this method of impacting people’s consciousness. Following the traditions of African American rhetoric, he employs music in his discourse rather frequently, which enables him to appeal to people of various age groups, add new shades of meaning to his words, turn to American history and at the same time be an up-to-date politician. As a result, interdiscursivity is acclaimed an extremely powerful method of influencing the audience and allusions to music being one of its tools have their own purport.
The article touches upon some aspects of bended or asynchronous learning on the basis of Edmodo platform. The bended or asynchronous learning presents the online method, which integrates face-to-face educational process with the application of new distant forms of schooling, based on IT technologies. Edmodo is a good potential for students to widen the frames of their class studies creating their own personalized educational zone. The platform is for interaction of students and teachers off-line for consulting, getting recommendations, doing home tasks, exploiting digital sources of information, as audio-visual aids, both in groups and individually. The approach provides a choice of optimal time for obtaining knowledge, which is a great opportunity in the modern life. The article explores the advantages of the platform, its benefits for the students in comparison with the other resources.
А great variety of definitions to the concept of "discourse" indicated in modern research reflect both versatility of the phenomenon and the relevance of diversified approach to the further research to be carried out in the field. It also eхposes the issue of discourse as an urgent priority to the problem of discourse competence development within the frame of teaching English for Special Purposes. In view of the fact that in cross-cultural communication there is a great choice of strategies for text and discourse production, the question of cross-cultural content awareness gets a new sounding in the context of teaching students at non-linguistic higher education institutions. The present article is an attempt to disclose and review the relevance of discourse approach to teaching a foreign language in the aspect of not only personal and social-group determinants, but also national and cultural features of professional communication.
This article deals with the semiotic nature of a sign and addresses the issue of what to consider as a model for linguistic research: sign relations or description of the concepts that are represented by a language sign? The aim of the work is to study and define the types of correlation between a sign and a concept on the language manifestation and speech representation levels. This correlation is suggested to study in the framework of morphothematic methodology proposed by Fefilov A.I. This question is studied on the basis of a language category of quality that is primarily expressed by a verb.
Numerous examples allowed us to distinguish the following types of correlation between the sign and the concept on the level of the language manifestation: manifestation (embodiment), expression, reference and description. Both concepts and language units undergo changes on the level of speech representation. On the one hand, the language unit adds something to the concept, widens, narrows, interprets, and modifies it. On the other hand, the represented concept in its turn determines the language unit that results in conceptualization of language units.