Зографский сборник. Выпуск 5
The article discusses the classifications of traditional sciences (vidyā, śāstra) in the Sanskrit texts of the Upanishads (Chāndogya and Muṇḍaka), in the Manusmṛti, Kauṭilya’s Arthaśāstra, Lalitavistara, Vatsyayāna’s Kāmasūtra et al. N. Kanaeva demonstrates that the authors of these classifications were brāhmans whereas the non-brāhmanical systems of science classifications did not introduce anything new into them because they had inherited them along with the traditions of brāhmanical educational system. Brāhmanical classifications of systems of knowledge were built according to a pragmatic criterion as lists of types of knowledge employed in the social practices of the higher varṇas: brāhmans, kṣatriyas and vaiśyas. In the Middle Ages another criterion for classification of sciences emerges — orientation to tradition (traditionalism) resulting in complicated lists combining theoretical and practical knowledge (“sciences” and “arts”).