2017 AAAI Spring Symposium Series
In the ongoing corpus project we annotate Russian constructions that have a metaphoric potential. Indirect linguistic metaphors are defined according to a customized version of the metaphor identification procedure MIPVU as the contrast between the basic and the contextual meaning of the lemmas participating in a construction. Direct Metaphors are defined as linguistic metaphors whose contextual meaning has two referents simultaneously, or, in terms of conceptual metaphor, there is a cross-domain mapping. Personification is a subtype of Indirect Metaphor where slots that require only animate participants are filled with non-animate arguments. The annotation of metaphor-related constructions is added as a new layer to SynTagRus, the Russian syntactical dependencies treebank. The paper focuses on the procedure of metaphor identification and the types of linguistic metaphors annotated.
The paper gives a brief overview of the linguistic metaphor identification procedure (MIPVU) which was adopted as a methodological basis for the shallow annotation scheme of the Russian-language corpus of conceptual metaphor. The paper also describes the results of the two annotation reliability tests in terms of inter-annotator agreement. The first reliability test, in which annotators used the brief version of the MIPVU rules, yielded results below both the generally accepted statistical threshold and the results reported by the VU Amsterdam Metaphor Corpus. We present the revised and extended version of MIPVU rules specifically adjusted to the Russian dictionaries deployed in annotation. Used in the second reliability test, the extended set of rules resulted in a significant increase of inter-annotator agreement which rose well above the threshold and reached the level of agreement in the VU Amsterdam Metaphor Corpus.
Russian FrameBank is a bank of annotated samples from the Russian National Corpus which documents the use of lexical constructions (e.g. argument constructions of verbs and nouns). FrameBank belongs to FrameNet-oriented resources, but unlike Berkeley FrameNet it focuses more on the morphosyntactic and semantic features of individual lexemes rather than the generalized frames, following the theoretical approaches of Construction Grammar (Ch. Fillmore, A. Goldberg, etc.) and of Moscow Semantic School (Ju. D. Apresjan, E. V. Paducheva, etc.).
The paper presents clustering experiments on Russian verbs based on the statistical data drawn from the Russian FrameBank (framebank.ru). While lexicology has essentially abandoned the idea of syntactic transformations as the primary basis for grouping verbs into semantic classes (Apresjan 1967, Levin 1993), the hypothesis of the same lexical and syntactic distributional profiles underlying lexical clusters is still attractive. In computational linguistics, some attempts have been made to obtain verb classes for English, German and other languages using observable morpho-syntactic and lexical properties of context (Dorr and Jones 1996; Lapata 1999; Schulte im Walde 2006; Lenci 2014, among others). Our experiments on semantic classification of Russian verbs are based on two types of tags embedded in the annotation of argument constructions: a) semantic roles and b) morpho-syntactic patterns. The domain of speech verbs is classified automatically on vectors, and the resulting clusters are contrasted against Babenko (2007)’s semantic classes and three other manual classifications. The classes within the domain of possessive verbs are constructed using rule-based solutions and evaluated against Berkeley FrameNet verb clusters. We conclude that clustering on morpho-syntactic (pure formal) patterns loses the race to more intelligent approaches which take into account semantic roles.
This handbook presents a comprehensive account of current work on Construction Grammar, its theoretical foundations, and its applications to and relationship with other kinds of linguistic enquiry. This volume is divided into five sections. The first section highlights the fundamental assumptions shared by all constructionist approaches; the second describes the particular frameworks in which the notion of constructions plays a central role; the third illustrates how constructionist approaches can be used for the analysis of all types of (morpho)syntactic phenomena from the lexicon-syntax cline; the fourth discusses the psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic underpinnings of Construction Grammar; and the final section considers the relation of Construction Grammar to language variation and change. The handbook also traces the history of Construction Grammar and explains its distinction from Chomskyan Mainstream Generative Gramma
The article examines the main trends in the study of the Stalinist period and the phenomenon of Stalinism in connection with the mass opening of the archives.