Transport Systems of Russian Cities. Ongoing Transformations
This volume discusses post-socialist urban transport functioning and development in Russia, within the context of the country’s recent transition towards a market economy. Over the past twenty-five years, urban transport in Russia has undergone serious transformations, prompted by the transitioning economy. Yet, the lack of readily available statistical data has led to a gap in the inclusion of Russia in the body of international transport economics research. By including ten chapters of original, cutting-edge research by Russian transport scholars, this book will close that gap. Discussing topics such as the relationship between urban spatial structure and travel behavior in post-soviet cities, road safety, trends and reforms in urban public transport development, transport planning and modelling, and the role of institutions in post-soviet transportation management, this book provides a comprehensive survey of the current state of transportation in Russia. The book concludes with a forecast for future travel development in Russia and makes recommendations for future policy. This book will be of interest to researchers in transportation economics and policy as well as policy makers and those working in the field of urban and transport planning.
International road safety priorities are defined by the slogan “towards zero”, which describes the aim to reduce the road mortality rates to a zero. The Russian Federation (along with China, India, and Brazil) is one of the «Risky States–10», which are the 10 countries with the high level of road fatalities and where more than half of the world traffic-related deaths occur. Even though the level of the transport risk has fallen over a decade (2005–2015) from 11.13 to 4.3, Russia still hasn’t reached the mark 3, which had been the target for the developed countries in the middle of the 20th century. If the mortality rate in Russia was as low as it is in the UK, Sweden or Netherlands, the number of road deaths per year would be about 3.5–4 thousand instead of 27 thousand. Motorization rates in Russian cities are essentially higher than country average. That’s why cities have much more road accidents and higher mortality rates. The situation is aggravated by the widespread practice of the combination of the road and street functions in the one technical object, which is aimed to let through the large volumes of traffic and is traced along the usual urban street. This leads to the larger amount of accidents with pedestrians due to the insufficiency and inconvenience of the underpasses and overpasses. The problem of the road safety receives much attention: the official meetings involving the first persons of the state are held regularly; world best practices in road safety are surveyed; fines for the traffic regulations violation are getting higher; the concepts of “value of life” and “aggressive driving” are introduced; quick response emergency systems are implemented. Some measures are taken to prioritize the pedestrians: pedestrian streets, zones of restricted access and speed limits within the urban territory are created. Still the crucial changes in the levels of road safety can’t be seen yet. The chapter provides a comparison of the main engineering tools and methods as well as institutional conditions for ensuring road safety in urban areas in Russia and in a number of developed regions of the world. Some recommendations for achieving further progress towards a civilized level of road safety in Russia are made.
Total government spending on road construction and maintenance in Russia are about 2.5 times lower than the funds required by the technical norms. This happens due to the lack of the interconnection between road funding and taxes and charges levied on road users. The mechanism of road funds has been introduced in 2011, but the problem still exists. Taxes, which are concerned with the car ownership and road usage (transport tax, fuel tax, utilization fees, custom dues) cover about 50 % of the total governmental spending on road infrastructure (and about 25 % in Moscow), the rest is covered by the general taxes. The road pricing is seen as a good alternative way of road funding. The involvement of the private investor into the construction of the toll roads was first implemented in the end of 1990s, when several pilot projects were realized. The large-scale implementation of the PPP principles is connected with the creation of The State Company Russian Highways (Avtodor). The mission of the company is to form and develop Russia’s national toll highway network using the private investments. Toll roads are also constructed or discussed in the big cities, such as Moscow, St. Petersburg, Ryazan, etc. In cities where the majority of offices, plants, and shopping malls are concentrated the road pricing is not only the best source of funding, but also the transport demand management instrument. Some other sources of road funding are emerging in the largest cities (Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kazan): parking fees, cordon tolls, pollution charges. Moreover the heavy vehicles (more than 12 ton) have been obliged to pay for the distance travelled on federal road network since November 2015. This is expected to provide additional income of about 50 billion rubles per year for the federal road fund. This chapter provides a detailed overview and appraisal of the road pricing implementation in the Russian Federation.
In this chapter we will examine the prospects of transforming the railway transport of Moscow from the historically established commuter format into a more modern, suburban-urban format, focused on the transportation of passengers not only between Moscow and suburbs, but also between various city zones. We will also assess the possibility of creating new rail transport lines that could eliminate part of the peak load from the most packed elements of the city transport system.
The chapter deals with results of the firrst nationwide travel survey in Russia in 2014.
The largest Russian cities are starting to implement travel demand management instruments to reduce car use. Today the non-pricing instruments are more popular in Russian cities: low emission zones, car sharing, pedestrian areas, public transport development, bicycles infrastructure development, etc. Paid parking is the main pricing instrument of travel demand management in Russian cities. Apart from the general description of pricing methods of the transport demand management which are currently being introduced in Russian cities it is necessary to develop the understanding of the measures effectiveness. Thus the experience of the paid parking implementation (about 20 cities, including Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Yekaterinburg) requires the serious analytical approach. Both ofﬁcial reports on effectiveness by the government and independent surveys are of interest. Not only should the operational parameters be examined, but also the public opinion should be analyzed. Taking into consideration the deﬁcit of the information on the projects of paid parking implementation, the article would be interesting both for Russian and foreign specialists. The survey also deals with organizational, legal and institutional issues.
Urban spatial structure is considered to be one of the determining factors of the transport demand volume and structure. Russian cities are traditionally characterized by high levels of public transport ridership, compared to the Western cities. Thus, it can be assumed that the spatial structure of Russian cities is a perfect illustration of the Transit Oriented Development (TOD). However, the spatial structure of the majority of the Russian cities, which has been developing during the rapid urbanization in the 20th century, currently preserves and reproduces the specific extensive models peculiar to the cities in the socialist countries. The authors analyze the spatial development patterns of 13 Russian cities in order to assess the current situation and the prospects for transit oriented development in the Russian Federation. А brief history of urban spatial development during the Soviet period is provided. Fundamental differences between TOD and Soviet Style Development (SSD) and their impact on transport demand are discussed.
After the total governmental control of the urban transport systems during the Soviet epoch came the 20 year long period of almost complete deregulation. Currently there is a trend towards the return to the practice of formal urban transport management, which represents a strange mixture of the remnants of the Soviet methods and the selective adoption of western urban planning practices. The chapter highlights the institutional aspects of transportation systems design and functioning. Using the neo-institutional approach, authors analyze urban transportation system management institutions as well as transportation policy of Russian authorities. The presented analysis consists of two levels: macro-level reveals trends at institution design, explains path dependency from the Soviet epoch. The micro-level put the light on the issue of decision design and the influence of certain actors. The clarification of the formal and informal urban transport management requires the overview of the following questions: the interests and the principles of authorities and private operators interaction, practices of transport demand management implementation and public reaction, the evolution of public perception of private and public property. The chapter is organized as follows. The first, introductory part of the chapter is dedicated to explaining the approach and methodological framework used. The second part reveals peculiarities of Soviet transportation system heritage. The third part examines the challenges of 90s period — introduction of free market mechanisms and era of deregulation. Fourth part discusses the experience of the first decade of XXI century and relevant changes in transport system. In the final part authors analyze main institutions; both formal and informal which shape the modern transport system.