MODELS '16 Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE 19th International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems
Process mining is an emerging discipline incorporating methods and tools for the analysis of system/process executions captured in the form of event logs. Traditionally process mining can be divided into three research areas: discovery (construction of process models from event logs), conformance checking (finding log and model deviations), and enhancement of existing process models with additional event log data. BPMN (Business Process Model and Notation) 2.0 is a widely used process modeling notation, supported by various process modeling and analysis tools, and is a de-facto process modeling standard. Using BPMN within process mining opens perspectives for applicability of the existing process mining techniques: for instance discovered process models can be analyzed or enacted using existing BPMN-based software, and vice versa, manually created models can be imported to a process mining tool, verified against event logs, and enhanced with additional data. In this work we bridge the gap between conventional process modeling formalisms used in the context of process mining (e.g., Petri nets, causal nets, process trees) and BPMN. For that purpose we developed a suite of conversion algorithms and provide formal guarantees relating the behavior of Petri nets (including non-freechoice nets) to the corresponding BPMN models (and vice versa). The derived relations are used to enhance the BPMN models with information learned from the event logs. The developed conversion techniques are described in detail in and have been implemented as a part of ProM (Process Mining Framework) – an open source tool for process mining and verified on real event log data. Moreover, cases for which conversion algorithms give more compact process models in comparison with the initial models are identified. Although the developed algorithms deal with basic control flow constructs only, they can be applied in the discovery of advanced BPMN modeling elements, including subprocesses, cancellations, conditional branching and data objects, swimlanes, message flows, and others.
Human reasoning uses to distinguish things that do change and things do not. The latter are commonly expressed in the reasoning as objects, which may represent classes or instances, and classes being further divided into concept types and relation types. These became the main issue of knowledge engineering and have been well tractable by computer. The former kind of things, meanwhile, inevitably evokes consideration not only of a ``thing-that-changes'' but also of ``change-of-a-thing'' and thus claims that the change itself be another entity that needs to be comprehended and handled. This special entity, being treated from different perspectives as event, (changeable) state, transformation, process, scenario and the like, remains a controversial philosophical, linguistic and scientific entity and has gained notably less systematic attention by knowledge engineers than non-changing things. In particular, there is no clarity in how to express the change in knowledge engineering -– as some specific concept or relation type, as a statement, or proposition, in which subject is related to predicate(s), or in another way. There seems to be an agreement among the scientists that time has to be related, explicitly or implicitly, to everything we regard as change -– but the way it should be related, and whether this should be exactly the time or some generic property or condition, is also an issue of debate. To bring together the researchers who study representation of change in knowledge engineering both in fundamental and applied aspects, a workshop on Modeling States, Events, Processes and Scenarios (MSEPS 2013) was run on 12 January, 2013, in the framework of the 20th International Conference on Conceptual Structures (ICCS 2013) in Mumbai, India. Seven submissions were selected for presentation that cover major approaches to representation of the change and address such diverse domains of knowledge as biology, geology, oceanography, physics, chemistry and also some multidisciplinary contexts. Concept maps of biological and other transformations were presented by Meena Kharatmal and Nagarjuna Gadiradju. Their approach stems from conceptual graphs of Sowa and represents the vision of change as a particular type of concept or, likely, relation, defined by meaning rather than by formal properties. The work of Prima Gustiene and Remigijus Gustas follows a congenial approach but develops a different notation for representation of the change based on specified actor dependencies in application to business issues concerning privacy-related data. Nataly Zhukova, Oksana Smirnova and Dmitry Ignatov explore the structure of oceanographic data in concern of opportunity of their representation by event ontologies and conceptual graphs. Vladimir Anokhin and Biju Longhinos examine another Earth science, geotectonics, and demonstrate that its long-lasting methodological problems urge application of knowledge engineering methods, primarily engineering of knowledge about events and processes. They suggest a draft of application strategy of knowledge engineering in geotectonics and claim for a joint interdisciplinary effort in this direction. Doji Lokku and Anuradha Alladi introduce a concept of ``purposefulness'' for any human action and suggest a modeling approach based on it in the systems theory context. In this approach, intellectual means for reaching a purpose are regarded either as structure of a system, in which the purpose is achieved, or as a process that takes place in this system. These means are exposed to different concerns of knowledge, which may be either favorable or not to achieving the purpose. The resulting framework perhaps can be described in a conceptual-graph-related way but is also obviously interpretable as a statement-based pattern, more or less resembling the event bush (Pshenichny et al., 2009). This binds all the aforementioned works with the last two contributions, which represent an approach based on understanding of the change as a succession of events (including at least one event), the latter being expressed as a statement with one subject and finite number of predicates. The method of event bush that materializes this approach, previously applied mostly in the geosciences, is demonstrated here in application to physical modeling by Cyril Pshenichny, Roberto Carniel and Paolo Diviacco and to chemical and experimental issues, by Cyril Pshenichny. The reported results and their discussion form an agenda for future meetings, discussions and publications. This agenda includes, though is not limited to, - logical tools for processes modeling, - visual notations for dynamic knowledge representation, - graph languages and graph semantics, - semantic science applications, - event-driven reasoning, - ontological modeling of events and time, - process mining, - modeling of events, states, processes and scenarios in particular domains and interdisciplinary contexts. The workshop has marked the formation of a new sub-discipline in the knowledge engineering, and future effort will be directed to consolidate its conceptual base and transform the existing diversity of approaches to representation of the change into an arsenal of complementary tools sharpened for various spectral regions of tasks in different domains.
Process mining is a new direction in the field of modeling and analysis of processes, where using information from event logs, describing the history of the system behavior, plays an important role. Methods and approaches used in the process mining are often based on various heuristics, and experiments with large event logs are crucial for the study and comparison of the developed methods and algorithms. Such experiments are very time consuming, so automation of experiments is an important task in the field of process mining. This paper presents the language DPMine developed specifically to describe and carry out experiments on the discovery and analysis of process models. The basic concepts of the DPMine language, as well as principles and mechanisms of its extension are described. Ways of integration of the DPMine language as dynamically loaded components into the VTMine modeling tool are considered. An illustrating example of an experiment to build a fuzzy model of the process discovered from the log data stored in a normalized database is given.
The paper describes the development of a portal about development and use of tools based on the (meta) modeling (using DSM, DSL, etc.). The architecture of a portal, information retrieval subsystem and document management are described.
The purpose of the portal is the creation of "selfdeveloping" resource, which provides intelligent search and automatic processing of the results (documents and sources), easy navigation on the found resources. Implementation is based on the ontologies approach.
The main feature of suggested methods is an integrated approach to development. The approach bases on a multi-level ontology repository. The portal allows searching and analyzing information, creating and researching model, publishing research results. Software gives an opportunity of a flexible customizing. The main topic of this paper is an intelligent information search means based on semantic indexation, automatic document classification, tracking of semantic links between documents and automatic summarization.
The topic of recommender systems is rapidly gaining interest in the user-behaviour modeling research domain. Over the years, various recommender algorithms based on different mathematical models have been introduced in the literature. Researchers interested in proposing a new recommender model or modifying an existing algorithm should take into account a variety of key performance indicators, such as execution time, recall and precision. Till date and to the best of our knowledge, no general cross-validation scheme to evaluate the performance of recommender algorithms has been developed. To fill this gap we propose an extension of conventional cross-validation. Besides splitting the initial data into training and test subsets, we also split the attribute description of the dataset into a hidden and visible part. We then discuss how such a splitting scheme can be applied in practice. Empirical validation is performed on traditional user-based and item-based recommender algorithms which were applied to the MovieLens dataset.
This article is devoted to study of management evolution in approaches for Business Process Management (BPM). Research is based on the taking into account 2 factors: standardization of approaches for BPM; and scope of enterprise as reflexive management. Authors used own consulting experience and intermediate results of the scientific researches carried out in State University HSE.
The technologies based on applying a metamodeling and domain-specific languages are widely used at information systems developing. There are many different tools for creating graphical domain-specific language editors with a possibility of determining user’s graphical notations. However they possess disadvantages. The MetaLanguage system is designed to eliminate some of these shortcomings. MetaLanguage is a language workbench which provides creation of visual dynamic adaptable domain-specific modeling languages used in the development of information systems. In paper the approach to development of MetaLanguage DSM-platform is considered. Basic metalanguage constructions of this system are described. The mathematical multilevel domain model with usage of pseudo-metagraphs is constructed. Definitions of the graph and metagraph are given. The algorithm of vertical models transformations is described. The architecture and implementation of the development environment of MetaLanguage toolkit is presented.
The aim objective of SMMS2015 is to present the latest research and results of scientists related to Simulation, Modelling and Mathematical Statistics topics. This conference provided opportunities for the different areas delegates to exchange new ideas and application experiences face to face, to establish business or research relations and to find global partners for future collaboration.
The technology of development of flexible systems for monitoring energy is presented. User is provided with means for connecting the sensors of power consumption devices, creating their own dashboards.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
Existing approaches suggest that IT strategy should be a reflection of business strategy. However, actually organisations do not often follow business strategy even if it is formally declared. In these conditions, IT strategy can be viewed not as a plan, but as an organisational shared view on the role of information systems. This approach generally reflects only a top-down perspective of IT strategy. So, it can be supplemented by a strategic behaviour pattern (i.e., more or less standard response to a changes that is formed as result of previous experience) to implement bottom-up approach. Two components that can help to establish effective reaction regarding new initiatives in IT are proposed here: model of IT-related decision making, and efficiency measurement metric to estimate maturity of business processes and appropriate IT. Usage of proposed tools is demonstrated in practical cases.
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.