Ninth International Conference on Vortex Matter in Nanostructured Superconductors, Rhodes (Greece), 12-17 September, 2015
A hundred years after the discovery of superconductivity, one fundamental prediction of the theory, coherent quantum phase slip (CQPS), has not been observed. CQPS is a phenomenon exactly dual1 to the Josephson effect; whereas the latter is a coherent transfer of charges between superconducting leads2,3, the former is a coherent transfer of vortices or fluxes across a superconducting wire. In contrast to previously reported observations4–8 of incoherent phase slip, CQPS has been only a subject of theoretical study9–12. Its experimental demonstration is made difficult by quasiparticle dissipation due to gapless excitations in nanowires or in vortex cores. This difficulty might be overcome by using certain strongly disordered superconductors near the superconductor– insulator transition. Here we report direct observation of CQPS in a narrow segment of a superconducting loop made of strongly disordered indium oxide; the effect is made manifest through the superposition of quantum states with different numbers of flux quanta13. As with the Josephson effect, our observation should lead to new applications in superconducting electronics and quantum metrology1,10,11
Conventional superconductivity in bulk objects is characterized by three phenomenological features: zero resistivity, perfect diamagnetism ( Meissner effect) and energy gap in the excitation spectrum. In this paper we demonstrate that these attributes of superconductivity do not apply to ultra-small objects governed by the essentially nanoscale phenomenon which is quantum fluctuations. The observation results in fundamental limitations of utilization of superconducting elements in nanoelectronic circuits. However, together with this rather pessimistic conclusion, the indicated size phenomena lead to a new class of nanoscale devices and applications.
Electron transport properties of titanium nanowires were experimentally studied. Below the effective diameter 50nm all samples demonstrated a pronounced broadening of the R(T ) dependencies, which cannot be accounted for by thermal fluctuations. Extensive microscopic and elemental analyses indicate the absence of structural or/and geometrical imperfections capable of broadening the R(T ) transition to such an extent. We associate the effect with quantum fluctuations of the order parameter
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.