Вісник Кам’янець-Подільського національного університету імені Івана Огієнка: Психологічні науки
The article presents epistemological and methodological analysis of biography and psychological and pedagogical ideas of the famous scientist-humanistician of Silver Age of the Russian culture Konstantin Ventsel. The paper provides characteristics of the philosophical and pedagogical theory of liberal education and pedagogical practice of liberal school developed by Ventsel from the point of view of refl exive acmeology and personology of creativity. The authors examine philosophical background of the concept of creative person, its genesis in the context of philosophical and psychological debates of the late XIX — early XX centuries. The research emphasizes the continuity of Ventsel’s life experience, his philosophical basis, psychological theory and pedagogical ideas. Through historical-philosophical reconstruction the authors expose dependence of the Ventsel’s theory on ethical and psychological debates in the Russian Silver Age Culture (religious Tolstoyism, philosophic voluntarism, political ideas of “Narodnaya Volya” movement, legal Marxism), as well as in post-Kantian European philosophy (in particular, concerning the problem of free will). While the Ventsel’s pedagogical project is interpreted as an actualization of his ethical, philosophical and psychological ideas. In this holistic psychological and pedagogical context, the article demonstrates the signifi cance of the Ventsel’s pre-acmeological theory of a creative personality development for further development of acmeology.
Examines the modification of the interdisciplinary connections of source stydy, depending on the transformation of its disciplinary status – a component of the methodology of history / a subdiscipline of historical science, – in correlation with the change of the object of source study. The immanence of connection of phenomenological conception of source study with psychology is revealed. The hypothesis about the multidisciplinary construction of the object of source study at the transformation of its subject in the subject field of historical science on the basis of the concept of “empirical reality of the historical world” is justified.
For several decades the Soviet academic psychology community was isolated from the West, yet after the collapse of the Soviet Union each of the 15 countries went their own way in economic, social, and scientific development. The paper analyses publications from post-Soviet countries in psychological journals in 1992–2017, i.e. 26 years after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Over the period in question, 15 post-Soviet countries had published 4986 papers in psychology, accounting for less than one percent of the world output in psychological journals. However, the growth of post-Soviet countries’ output in psychological journals, especially that of Russia and Estonia, is observed during this period. Over time, post-Soviet authors began to write more papers in international teams, constantly increasing the proportion of papers in which they are leaders and main contributors. Their papers are still underrepresented in the best journals as well as among the most cited papers in the field and are also cited lower than the world average. However, the impact of psychological papers from post-Soviet countries increases with time. There is a huge diversity between 15 post-Soviet countries in terms of contribution, autonomy, and impact. Regarding the number of papers in psychological journals, the leading nations are Russia, Estonia, Lithuania, Ukraine, and Georgia. Estonia is the leader in autonomy in publishing papers in psychological journals among post-Soviet countries. Papers from Estonia and Georgia are cited higher than the world average, whereas papers from Russia and Ukraine are cited below the world average. Estonia and Georgia also boast a high number of Highly cited papers.
Popularity of online courses with open access and unlimited student participation, the so-called massive open online courses (MOOCs), has been growing intensively. Students, professors, and universities have an interest in accurate measures of students' proficiency in MOOCs. However, these measurements face several challenges: (a) assessments are dynamic: items can be added, removed or replaced by a course author at any time; (b) students may be allowed to make several attempts within one assessment; (c) assessments may include an insufficient number of items for accurate individual-level conclusions. Therefore, common psychometric models and techniques of Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT) do not serve perfectly to measure proficiency. In this study we try to cover this gap and propose cross-classification multilevel logistic extensions of the common IRT model, the Rasch model, aimed at improving the assessment of the student's proficiency by modeling the effect of attempts and by involving non-assessment data such as student's interaction with video lectures and practical tasks. We illustrate these extensions on the logged data from one MOOC and check the quality using a cross-validation procedure on three MOOCs. We found that (a) the performance changes over attempts depend on the student: whereas for some students performance ameliorates, for other students, the performance might deteriorate; (b) similarly, the change over attempts varies over items; (c) student's activity with video lectures and practical tasks are significant predictors of response correctness in a sense of higher activity leads to higher chances of a correct response; (d) overall accuracy of prediction of student's item responses using the extensions is 6% higher than using the traditional Rasch model. In sum, our results show that the approach is an improvement in assessment procedures in MOOCs and could serve as an additional source for accurate conclusions on student's proficiency.
The presented project is intended to make use of growing amounts or textual data in social networks in the Russian language, In order to find linguistic correlates of the Dark Triad personality traits, comprising non-clinical Narcissism, Machiavellianism and Psychopathy. The background for the investigation includes, on the one hand, psychological research on these phenomena and their measurement instruments, and on the other hand, recent advances In computational stylometry and text-based author profiling. The measures for these psychological phenomena are provided by recognized self-report psychological surveys adapted to Russian. Morphological and semantic analysis are applied to investigate the relationship between the Dark traits and their linguistic manifestation in social network texts. Significant morphological and semantic correlates of Narcissism, Machiavellianism and Psychopathy are identified and compared to respective advances In English author profiling. In order to deepen our understanding of the relation between these psychological characteristics and natural language use, the identified linguistic features are Interpreted In terms of the line-grained factor structure of the Dark traits. Identifying correlated features is a step towards automatic Dark trait prediction and early detection of the potentially harmful mental states.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.