Российская политическая наука: Идеи, концепции, методы
The article was devoted the analysis adaptation strategies of the Roman Catholic and Russian Orthodox Churches to the new social and political conditions in the last decades. The author comes to the conclusion that Russian Orthodox Church chooses strategy of conservation to the new social and political conditions and Roman Catholic Church makes decision to follow democratic adaptation strategies.
Modern political science faces significant challenges in methodology, positioning, and disciplinary reproduction. Virtually all of these challenges (both internalist and externalist) are due to the reduction of the methodology of political science to the positivist paradigm. Examples of concepts of political culture, democratic transit, hybrid regimes, post-secularity, political will are a demonstration of the positivist paradigm weaknesses. The positivist methodological orientation dominance gives such the cost in political science as both in the reduction of the scientific explanation to the evaluative categorization and in the elimination from the subject of consideration of the actual political subject and his will. Answers to these challenges suggest systematization of the interdisciplinary narrative of political knowledge. It is necessary to expand the methodological horizon of the analysis of political reality. Such expansion is possible on the interdisciplinary approach basis, which is specified in this work as fixing and disclosing the poly-narrative content of political knowledge. The dynamics of political reality is revealed through the procedure (algorithm, technology) of the generation of a phenomenon or concept with the help of narratives, the corresponding formulation of factology, theoretical constructs and the goals of political reality analysis. In turn, the history of the generation procedure, taking into account the social forces game reveal the individual nature of political phenomena. In this regard, it becomes clear that the key role for modern political science is precisely the validity of the goals pursued, problem orientation, i. e. “expediency” of the planned or carried out the activity. The criterion of science is not in the methods, but in solving the problem, which is guaranteed by the adequacy of the methods used. The proposed approach opens up new possibilities for analyzing and explaining the political processes dynamics, the role of specific political forces, socio-cultural and personal factors in them.
The article was devoting a problem of research causation between stateness and political regime. The author worked within the structuralism approach and using econometric tools. He educed that political regime is determined of stateness.
The paper makes an attempt at inserting (positivistic) political science in a broader epistemological context than it is usually conceived. The implied context is that of the contingency of the human world which was pointed out by Aristotle in “Nicomachean Ethics” when he stated that politics deals more with particulars than with general principles, and more with changeable than stable things. Under the conditions of contingency, finding a foothold for thinking and acting becomes a problem; political science is considered as one of the three “strategies” of dealing with contingency, along with “political creativity” and “political virtù”. Political science as such aims at finding invariants and regularities which govern the social world; “political creativity” is concerned both with designing new invariants which would structure the social world and with making the connection between causes and effects more reliable; finally, “political virtù” is what makes human action less dependent on the invariants, and it can manifest itself in various forms – from the Machiavellian virtù as such to “antifragility”. The choice of the strategy depends on the degree of complexity of the process which has to be dealt with. The paper describes three strategies of taming contingency, proposes a classification of the degrees of complexity of (social and political) processes (elementary, simple, complex and chaotic) and derives some implications from the general argument. These implications entail, among other things, that in the world which political science studies there are no clear-cut boundaries between 1) knowledge and action, 2) scientific knowledge and pragmatically oriented heuristics.
The article was devoted the analysis relations thinkers of Catholicism and Orthodoxy to democratic values. The author analyzed texts of religious thinkers about democracy, liberty and law. Investigator came to the conclusion that catholic thinkers have good relations to democratic oriented values but orthodox thinkers have negative relations to democratic oriented values.
The article deals with the processes of building the information society and security in the CIS in accordance with modern conditions. The main objective is to review existing mechanisms for the formation of a common information space in the Eurasian region, regarded as one of the essential aspects of international integration. The theoretical significance of the work is to determine the main controls of the regional information infrastructure, improved by the development of communication features in a rapid process.The practical component consists in determining the future policies of the region under consideration in building the information society. The study authors used historical-descriptive approach and factual analysis of events having to do with drawing the contours of today's global information society in the regional refraction.
The main result is the fact that the development of information and communication technologies, and network resources leads to increased threats of destabilization of the socio-political situation in view of the emergence of multiple centers that generate the ideological and psychological background. Keeping focused information policy can not be conceived without the collective participation of States in the first place, members of the group leaders of integration - Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. Currently, only produced a comprehensive approach to security in the information field in the Eurasian region, but the events in the world, largely thanks to modern technology, make the search for an exit strategy with a much higher speed. The article contributes to the science of international relations, engaging in interdisciplinary thinking that is associated with a transition period in the development of society. A study of current conditions in their relation to the current socio-political patterns of the authors leads to conclusions about the need for cooperation with the network centers of power in the modern information environment, the formation of alternative models of networking, especially in innovation and scientific and technical areas of information policy, and expanding the integration of the field in this region on the information content.