Социально-политические и эколого-хозяйственные проблемы развития Балтийского региона
Many environmental stimuli present a quasi-rhythmic structure at different timescales that the brain needs to decompose and integrate. Cortical oscillations have been proposed as instruments of sensory de-multiplexing, i.e., the parallel processing of different frequency streams in sensory signals. Yet their causal role in such a process has never been demonstrated. Here, we used a neural microcircuit model to address whether coupled theta–gamma oscillations, as observed in human auditory cortex, could underpin the multiscale sensory analysis of speech. We show that, in continuous speech, theta oscillations can flexibly track the syllabic rhythm and temporally organize the phoneme-level response of gamma neurons into a code that enables syllable identification. The tracking of slow speech fluctuations by theta oscillations, and its coupling to gamma-spiking activity both appeared as critical features for accurate speech encoding. These results demonstrate that cortical oscillations can be a key instrument of speech de-multiplexing, parsing, and encoding.
Within the monsoon period (May-September) there is enough water (1800-2250 mm). Distribution of water for irrigation is realized in accordance with the customary law norms. An irrigation channel can be the property of one family, the property of several families with the land plots located closely or discretely. The village community members take part in the works for construction, support and reconstruction of the irrigation system. When water comes to the plots, women can catch small fish there to be quickly cooked or dried and stored.
Evolutionary economic geography (EEG) has experienced a dynamic boost: an inter-disciplinary mix of geographers, regional scientists and economists are applying new concepts and tools to describe regional economic dynamics. This paper provides an review on the Workshop on “Evolutionary Economic Geography in Central and Eastern Europe” (Budapest, November 11–15, 2013). In short, the Workshop provided an overview of the EEG concepts and quantitative tools mainly through a series of lectures by Ron Boschma (Director, CIRCLE, Lund University and Professor, Utrecht University) and, at the same time, served as a platform for young CEE researchers aiming to contribute to the EEG literature and to understand the complex regional dynamics of economic progress.
We study the dynamics of inter-regional disparities for a number of characteristics of development, test the hypothesis of the new economic geography. The empirical analysis shows the spatial concentration of economic activity is continuing in Russia and the rate of inter-regional divergence, is rather high. The factors of the spatial concentration and regional disparities in Russia are population density, size and accessibility of markets, as well as the level of diversification and industry structure of the economy.
The article considers the processes of the production and property deconcentration in the Russian agri- culture and forestry during the period of systemic economic crisis of 1990s and the processes of the produc- tion concentration and of the vertically-integrated companies formation during the period of compensato- ry industrialisation of 2000-s. Special attention is paid to impact these processes made on spatial organisa- tion of the rural areas of the Non-Black Soil region of the European part of Russia and on the socio-eco- nomic conditions of rural communities. The conclusion is made that agriculture and forestry — the loner (raw material supply j stages of the technological chains of the agri- and timber-industrial complexes — had suffered the most during the economic recession and has been usually becoming the objects, not the subjects, of the vertical integration during the subsequent economic growth.
Papers in geography, biology, history
The evolution of a special research branch is investigated and described - economic geography, from its origin phase to the up-to-date time.
One of the key advances in genome assembly that has led to a significant improvement in contig lengths has been improved algorithms for utilization of paired reads (mate-pairs). While in most assemblers, mate-pair information is used in a post-processing step, the recently proposed Paired de Bruijn Graph (PDBG) approach incorporates the mate-pair information directly in the assembly graph structure. However, the PDBG approach faces difficulties when the variation in the insert sizes is high. To address this problem, we first transform mate-pairs into edge-pair histograms that allow one to better estimate the distance between edges in the assembly graph that represent regions linked by multiple mate-pairs. Further, we combine the ideas of mate-pair transformation and PDBGs to construct new data structures for genome assembly: pathsets and pathset graphs.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.