Советский социокультурный проект: исторический шанс или глобальная антиутопия
Après la mort de Staline (1953), le discours officiel sur « l'homme nouveau » reste inchangé pour l’essentiel, mais l’image du Soviétique dans les œuvres littéraires et artistiques se modifie très nettement. De plus en plus de Soviétiques tentent, par l’art et la culture, d’échapper aux règles encadrant la vie sociale. La culture se fait double, voire triple, plus que jamais, elle multiplie les codes, les doubles sens, l’implicite.
A significant part of the research is devoted to the Soviet musical and ideological construction. The ideal type of "Soviet man", presented in popular musical genres, is characterized by radical novelty and constitutive universalism, which is illustrated on the material of Soviet “songs about the time”, understood not simply as a thematically distinct genre. The history of the «Soviet» as such, can be read as the story of the rise and intensification of reflection of collective engagement into the temporal cognition.
In the period under review, from the late twenties to mid-sixties - you receive a lot of songs, somehow fixing the course of time: here thematized not just subjective experience of immersion into an unordered medium of temporality, but the presence of a sustainable and rational order, to which this medium is submitted. Investigation of the representation of time, memory and youth in the Soviet song of the classical period allows making a conclusion that the stage of final crystallization of «Soviet» musical-poetic meanings is the period of «thaw». In this period the Soviet song takes the genuine universality and integrity, starts to play the role of substance of the «Soviet» as such. Songs about the time - and the Soviet song always somehow relates with time, «small» or «Large» - forms together a generalized three-part formula of the «Soviet»: the link of times (present time is comprehended only through the memory of the legendary past) is given as the fullness of time (memory of the past is not simply subjectively and emotionally experienced, but objectively and actively performed in the present, that is the moment of eternity), which in relation to the future has the quality of absolute novelty (incomplete, flowing, unfinished present is decrepit by definition since its incompleteness requires the occurrence of something different and new; totally completed time, in contrast, is new in comparison with any possible future, because the future is nothing more than the repetition and, perhaps, the isolation, the «privatization» of what is already given in the integrity of the fullness of the time).
The article attempts to outline new theoretical approaches to the study of the Soviet past, based on the cultural-anthropological research program of “the Soviet man” as proposed by N. N. Kozlova. Our assumption is that, in the implementation of her research program, Kozlova was trying to solve a double problem: on the one hand, to overcome the ideological framework posed by the concept of totalitarianism as the basic model of understanding Soviet society, and on the other, to understand Soviet society as an unintended social invention, In the framework of the model of Soviet society as an unintended social invention, classical social-theoretical views and conceptions enter into a complex theoretical alliance with the postclassical social theories of Norbert Elias, Michel Foucault, Michel de Certeau, and Pierre Bourdieu. The purpose of this strategy of research is to find adequate intellectual models and a basic theoretical framework for understanding the relationship between the individual and society. The qualification of the Soviet society as a social invention implies that a functional interdependent network of individuals arises in the course of common life of the individuals from the interactions between them. This network moves in a certain direction and has its own regularities, which, as specific patterns of relations between individuals, is not defined exactly by any one individual. The role of the basic model for the understanding of such a functional network of interdependent individuals does not play the model of the system, but the model of the common game and the social grammar, which is at the core of this game. Special attention is paid to the assessment of the heuristic potential of Kozlova’s hypothesis of Soviet civilization as a special type of modern society, and its importance for the studies of Soviet society and culture.
In 2006, Russia amended its competition law and added the concepts of ‘collective dominance’ and its abuse. This was seen as an attempt to address the common problem of ‘conscious parallelism’ among firms in concentrated industries. Critics feared that the enforcement of this provision would become tantamount to government regulation of prices. In this paper we examine the enforcement experience to date, looking especially closely at sanctions imposed on firms in the oil industry. Some difficulties and complications experienced in enforcement are analysed, and some alternative strategies for addressing anticompetitive behaviour in concentrated industries discussed.