Советский социокультурный проект: исторический шанс или глобальная антиутопия
Après la mort de Staline (1953), le discours officiel sur « l'homme nouveau » reste inchangé pour l’essentiel, mais l’image du Soviétique dans les œuvres littéraires et artistiques se modifie très nettement. De plus en plus de Soviétiques tentent, par l’art et la culture, d’échapper aux règles encadrant la vie sociale. La culture se fait double, voire triple, plus que jamais, elle multiplie les codes, les doubles sens, l’implicite.
It is about soviet arcade machine.
A significant part of the research is devoted to the Soviet musical and ideological construction. The ideal type of "Soviet man", presented in popular musical genres, is characterized by radical novelty and constitutive universalism, which is illustrated on the material of Soviet “songs about the time”, understood not simply as a thematically distinct genre. The history of the «Soviet» as such, can be read as the story of the rise and intensification of reflection of collective engagement into the temporal cognition.
In the period under review, from the late twenties to mid-sixties - you receive a lot of songs, somehow fixing the course of time: here thematized not just subjective experience of immersion into an unordered medium of temporality, but the presence of a sustainable and rational order, to which this medium is submitted. Investigation of the representation of time, memory and youth in the Soviet song of the classical period allows making a conclusion that the stage of final crystallization of «Soviet» musical-poetic meanings is the period of «thaw». In this period the Soviet song takes the genuine universality and integrity, starts to play the role of substance of the «Soviet» as such. Songs about the time - and the Soviet song always somehow relates with time, «small» or «Large» - forms together a generalized three-part formula of the «Soviet»: the link of times (present time is comprehended only through the memory of the legendary past) is given as the fullness of time (memory of the past is not simply subjectively and emotionally experienced, but objectively and actively performed in the present, that is the moment of eternity), which in relation to the future has the quality of absolute novelty (incomplete, flowing, unfinished present is decrepit by definition since its incompleteness requires the occurrence of something different and new; totally completed time, in contrast, is new in comparison with any possible future, because the future is nothing more than the repetition and, perhaps, the isolation, the «privatization» of what is already given in the integrity of the fullness of the time).
A major contribution to the growing literature on Soviet nationality policy. David Brandenberger frames his study with a large and important question: the generation of a Russian/Soviet national identity during the Stalinist years. He tells the important story of the production of a more nationalist world view and how it was received, moving from elites to the masses. Focusing on history and historians, Brandenberger links historiography with nation-making and state building. This work should be widely read, not least because it clearly and eloquently illuminates the painful process of forging national identity. (Ronald Grigor Suny, University of Chicago) Brandenberger alters our understanding of how Soviet culture was created and how it held Soviet society together. Perhaps the greatest strength of the book is the foundation of documents on which it rests. Clearly the result of years of gathering, these documents show us Stalinism as received, as a set of social practices and discourses in constant revision and misuse. National Bolshevism illuminates broader debates about the functioning of Soviet society, the origins of national consciousness, and the formation of the subject with the modern state, and will be a widely read contribution to the field. (James von Geldern, Macalester College)
The article attempts to outline new theoretical approaches to the study of the Soviet past, based on the cultural-anthropological research program of “the Soviet man” as proposed by N. N. Kozlova. Our assumption is that, in the implementation of her research program, Kozlova was trying to solve a double problem: on the one hand, to overcome the ideological framework posed by the concept of totalitarianism as the basic model of understanding Soviet society, and on the other, to understand Soviet society as an unintended social invention, In the framework of the model of Soviet society as an unintended social invention, classical social-theoretical views and conceptions enter into a complex theoretical alliance with the postclassical social theories of Norbert Elias, Michel Foucault, Michel de Certeau, and Pierre Bourdieu. The purpose of this strategy of research is to find adequate intellectual models and a basic theoretical framework for understanding the relationship between the individual and society. The qualification of the Soviet society as a social invention implies that a functional interdependent network of individuals arises in the course of common life of the individuals from the interactions between them. This network moves in a certain direction and has its own regularities, which, as specific patterns of relations between individuals, is not defined exactly by any one individual. The role of the basic model for the understanding of such a functional network of interdependent individuals does not play the model of the system, but the model of the common game and the social grammar, which is at the core of this game. Special attention is paid to the assessment of the heuristic potential of Kozlova’s hypothesis of Soviet civilization as a special type of modern society, and its importance for the studies of Soviet society and culture.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.