The scientific significance It was proposed to use relative position of motivational objects in the multidimensional space of evaluation scales and projections of motivational objects on these scales as motive's indicators. Novelty and originality Original data about work motivation of professionals, workink in financial sector, were received.
Relevance Modern trends of business development in Russia suggest increasing companies' interest in the effective human capital management . One of the work with personnel key directions is the motivation and stimulation of workers with the purpose to improve company's efficiency, reduce employee turnover and retention of qualified experts, reduction of costs on personnel. In this regard, there is a growing need for scientific study of the personnel imotivation in Russian companies, due to the cultural characteristics of the society.
Psychological well-being is one of the key personality characteristics, whose popularity as a dependent variable has increased especially, on the one hand, with the development of the bio-psycho-social approach in medicine and the health psychology and, on the other hand, of positive psychology. In E. Diener's model, subjective well-being is determined through its three interconnected components – satisfaction as a result of cognitive appraisal of one's life, as well as positive and negative emotions as affective сcomponents. He criticizes the most widespread in the world the scale for psycho-diagnostics of emotions PANAS for its emphasize on emotions with a high level of excitation, rather than qualitative features of emotions. As an alternative, he proposed a Scale of Positive and Negative Experiences (SPANE), characterized by a greater emphasis on modality, in contrast to intensity, emotion. The aim was to validate the Russian version of the scale. 179 students of psychological specialties and 100 adult respondents filled out this scale and Satisfaction with Life Scale. The students also answered the questions of a brief version of WHOWOL and a brief version of the Quality of Life and Satisfaction Questionnaire. According to the data obtained, the scale is characterized by sufficient reliability-consistency (Cronbach alpha 0,81–0,89), test-retest reliability (r = 0,52–0,65) and factor validity. Its subscales correlate with satisfaction with life, quality of life, especially in the domains of emotions and communication, as well as coping strategies that are traditionally described as "productive", which indicates the external validity of the scale. The scale can be used for screening diagnostics of positive and negative emotions in psychological research.
The article presents the development of the new self-report questionnaire EmoS-15 measuring core affect. Core affect is defined as the key component of any emotional phenomenon, elementary consciously accessible affective feeling not directed at anything. The EmoS-15 is based on the structure model of core affect derived from the Russian data. The model distinguishes three dimensions of core affect, namely positive affect with high activation, negative affect with low activation, and tension. The EmoS-15 consists of three respectively named scales. The questionnaire comprises 15 items each of them being an emotion name. The participant must assess to which extent each item matches her emotional state using Likert format of responses. The EmoS-15 was administered to 303 participants. All scales have satisfactory reliability (Cronbach’s alphas higher than .85); the questionnaire factor structure fits the three-dimensional model. To assess validity, EmoS-15 scales were correlated with personality questionnaires that measure similar psychological constructs (N=83). The first scale yielded the highest correlation (r = .50) with the aggregated score consisting of Diener’s Satisfaction With Life Scale and Lyubomirsky’s Subjective Happiness Scale. The second scale yielded the highest correlation with the Beck Depression Inventory (r = .63) and the third scale with the state scale of Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = .57). This pattern of correlations confirms satisfactory validity of the EmoS-15. The new questionnaire can be applied to a wide array of research and practical tasks including measurement of the actual core affect and emotional state, assessment of the affective background typical for longer time periods, experience sampling, and control of participants’ emotional states during the laboratory experiments.
The scientific importance.
Paper shows the results of the development of new methodological tools, based on diagnostics of work motivation, proved the principal possibility of diagnostics of motivation by obtaining subjective differences between motivational objects in space of evaluation scales.
Novelty and originality.
Paper presents original the original procedure of work motivationevaluation, involving the decision motivational tasks in the conditions of involuntary comparison of 16 motivational objects on 6 evaluation criteria.
The urgency of work motivation issues has increased during the transition from a command to a market economy in the early 1990s, when management principles have been changed. Modern trends of business development in Russia assume more and more companies which are interested in the effective management of human capital. Motivation is one of the most important parts of HR proceses in organization.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.