Культурно-политологические аспекты американистики
In recent years, the theme of blackface has again become a pressing issue in American society because of the scandals that have flared up around prominent instances of its use and the taboo of even mentioning it in public. Blackface is a form of theatrical make-up worn by a performer in minstrel shows as a caricature of the appearance of a black person. First appearing in the 19 century, these popular entertainment performances existed for more than 150 years and became part of general American entertainment culture. Moreover, they played a considerable role in reinforcing and spreading stereotypes about the character and behavior of African Americans. This article reveals the main reasons why any visual and costumed parody of people with dark skin is considered socially unacceptable today. The author considers the problem of contemporary American gangsta rap being offensive to African American women through its use of minstrel show racial stereotypes. Furthermore, the author suggests that the representation of black women in American culture is always closely and inextricably linked with the history of racism and sexism in the U.S.; traditionally, black women were contrasted with the ideal images of white women. Despite the fact that well-known caricatures such as Mammy, Sapphire, and Jezebel have undergone significant changes due to social and political evolution in the United States, their negative legacy is still found not just in broader American society, but within the African American community itself.
In the discussion field of the conference, with the participation of philologists, historians, political scientists, culturologists, linguists, the problems of reception and interpretation of the war in various historical and methodological discourses, the ratio of factual and fictional, real and imaginary wars in historical retrospect, the influence of sociocultural and international contexts on military discourse in literature, historical reflection in the text about the war, as well as various mechanisms for the formation and maintenance of collective th memory of Americans about the key wars in US history (War of Independence, the Civil War 1861-1865, World War II, the Vietnam War.) and an appeal to the imaginary past for solving modern domestic and foreign policy problems.
Through the example of the U Street block in Washington, D.C., the noted American urbanist shows that urban “contact zones” in which people disunited by racial, ethic, confessional and class conflicts are living side by side, serve as generators of new adaptive strategies. The inexhaustible source of viability and flexibility of these communities lies in the need for survival in the conditions of “deliberate social complexity”. It is precisely this experience that enables such communities effectively to adapt to the aftermaths of natural calamities and social conflicts.
The article tells about the value of american culture for Osip Mandelstam
What is it to be a work of art? Renowned author and critic Arthur C. Danto addresses this fundamental, complex question. Part philosophical monograph and part memoiristic meditation, What Art Is challenges the popular interpretation that art is an indefinable concept, instead bringing to light the properties that constitute universal meaning. Danto argues that despite varied approaches, a work of art is always defined by two essential criteria: meaning and embodiment, as well as one additional criterion contributed by the viewer: interpretation. Danto crafts his argument in an accessible manner that engages with both philosophy and art across genres and eras, beginning with Plato’s definition of art in The Republic, and continuing through the progress of art as a series of discoveries, including such innovations as perspective, chiaroscuro, and physiognomy. Danto concludes with a fascinating discussion of Andy Warhol’s famous shipping cartons, which are visually indistinguishable from the everyday objects they represent.
This special publication for the 2012 New Delhi Summit is a collection of articles by government officials from BRICS countries, representatives of international organizations, businessmen and leading researchers.
The list of Russian contributors includes Sergei Lavrov, Foreign Minister of Russia, Maxim Medvedkov, Director of the Trade Negotiations Department of the Russian Ministry of Economic Development, Vladimir Dmitriev, Vnesheconombank Chairman, Alexander Bedritsky, advisor to the Russian President, VadimLukov, Ambassador-at-large of the Russian Foreign Affairs Ministry, and representatives of the academic community.
The publication also features articles by the President of Kazakhstan NursultanNazarbayev and internationally respected economist Jim O’Neil, who coined the term “BRIC”. In his article Jim O’Neil speculates about the future of the BRICS countries and the institution as a whole.
The publication addresses important issues of the global agenda, the priorities of BRICS and the Indian Presidency, the policies and competitive advantages of the participants, as well as BRICS institutionalization, enhancing efficiency and accountability of the forum.