Handbook of the 5th World Congress and School on Universal Logic
In the same way that universal algebra is a general theory of algebraic structures, universal logic is a general theory of logical structures. During the 20th century, numerous logics have been created: intuitionistic logic, deontic logic, many-valued logic, relevant logic, linear logic, non monotonic logic, etc. Universal logic is not a new logic, it is a way of unifying this multiplicity of logics by developing general tools and concepts that can be applied to all logics. One aim of universal logic is to determine the domain of validity of such and such metatheorem (e.g. the completeness theorem) and to give general formulations of metatheorems. This is very useful for applications and helps to make the distinction between what is really essential to a particular logic and what is not, and thus gives a better understanding of this particular logic. Universal logic can also be seen as a toolkit for producing a specific logic required for a given situation, e.g. a paraconsistent deontic temporal logic.
The main aim of this paper is to show the advantages of shifting focus from substantial towards dynamic model of formality, i.e. from formal ontology (the domain of higher order formal objects, e.g. hypostases of structurally invariant properties of models) to formal deontology (the domain of rules-governed and goals-directed activity).