Adaptation et socialisation des minorités en région
The article will discuss the variety of African migrants’ pathways toward social recognition and success in a Russian megacity by describing and analyzing the experiences of the Ethiopian owners of two establishments in Moscow: a lavish downtown restaurant, and a small café on an international university campus on the city’s outskirts. These cases display various points of both similarity and divergence, but are here regarded as examples of successful African entrepreneurship, each in its own way, contrasting with the usual representation of Africans as passive victims in the receiving society. As background for the analysis we provide information on the changes that have occurred since the breakup of the USSR, and which have impacted on the migrants’ social composition, on their strategies of integration, and on the modes P. 206. of their acceptance by the new sociocultural milieu. The research is based mainly on in-depth and semi-structured interviews with the two establishment owners, their employees, and guests conducted in May to June 2012. It reveals the factors that have promoted their successful establishment in the Russian capital as well as their own perceptions of the position of migrants within it.
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The article has evaluated the influence of labor migration on the prospects for socio-economic development (SED) within different Russian Federation (RF) regions, with a focus on Nizhny Novgorod. It notes that labor shortages are a function of the country's complex demographic condition, calling labor migration a significant factor in the RF SED. At this stage, the commentary refocuses on the main characteristics of labor migration in Nizhny Novgorod region: ethnic composition, qualifications, industrial requisites and ongoing needs for worker employment. The critique also delves into the projected contribution of migrants to both the gross regional product and the regional budget, exploring the territory's projected goal of attracting labor migrants. In the course of the discussion, the document has identified the aspects impeding comprehensive SED, primarily the host country's ratio of migrants to the general population. In parallel, the paper has provided a study into Nizhny Novgorod's balance of students to labor migrants, claiming that the relationship exhibits certain potential risks that could negatively impact on the projected regional SED. The blueprint posits, in conclusion, that the RF has to adopt certain migrant-worker-related mechanisms to improve the operational efficiency of its worker-integration procedures.
What is the language distribution among migrant children in different domains? Which factors influence the relationship between the majority and dominant language? Do second-generation migrants experience problems with linguistic shift? The work also considers data from schoolchildren surveyed by the Sociology of Education and Science Laboratory at the National Research University at the Higher School of Economics from 2009-2010 (around 7,500 surveys of high school pupils, continuous sampling in schools)
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.