Методы оценки последствий изменения климата для физических и биологических объектов: коллективная монография
Many environmental stimuli present a quasi-rhythmic structure at different timescales that the brain needs to decompose and integrate. Cortical oscillations have been proposed as instruments of sensory de-multiplexing, i.e., the parallel processing of different frequency streams in sensory signals. Yet their causal role in such a process has never been demonstrated. Here, we used a neural microcircuit model to address whether coupled theta–gamma oscillations, as observed in human auditory cortex, could underpin the multiscale sensory analysis of speech. We show that, in continuous speech, theta oscillations can flexibly track the syllabic rhythm and temporally organize the phoneme-level response of gamma neurons into a code that enables syllable identification. The tracking of slow speech fluctuations by theta oscillations, and its coupling to gamma-spiking activity both appeared as critical features for accurate speech encoding. These results demonstrate that cortical oscillations can be a key instrument of speech de-multiplexing, parsing, and encoding.
This study explores U.S. public companies’ reactions to scientific announcements by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) with respect to updated climate change knowledge and how it affects their stock valuations, given their carbon emission/environmental outlooks. Based on a sample of total daily returns collected for 10 industry indexes from the S&P 500 Index over the period 1990–2014, and using an event study approach, we analyze the connection between IPCC assessment report announcements and firms’ returns to evaluate panel data models. We found that various sectors, regardless of their carbon profiles, react abnormally to IPCC report announcements without remarkable long-run cumulative effects. The implications of these results are that there is no clear violation of the efficient markets hypothesis, yet short-term profits may be gained. Furthermore, the market still reacts to new scientific announcements, even though 24 years have passed since the first IPCC report. In addition, there is a negative relationship for low and medium carbon-intensive industries, especially in the short term.
Analysis of Climate change in Russia
Northern Eurasian forest-steppe and steppe encompass huge region where observed and projected climate change and in particular change in precipitation regime demonstrate high spatial heterogeneity. In this study, spatial and temporal variations of croplands and grasslands productivity in the main agricultural regions of Russia and adjacent countries are indicated by means of sum annual NDVI time series analysis. For the three decadal periods with different climatic and socio-economic conditions (1980s, 1990s and 2000s) we constructed time series of NDVI extracted from low-resolution remote sensing data (NOAA AVHRR, Terra MODIS) and time series of gridded climate data — precipitation and PDSI. Revealed non-parametric significant trends in sum annual NDVI were analyzed on the concordance of their signs with climate data trends for different for- est-steppe and steppe ecoregions. Spatial analysis and resulted maps demonstrate the predominance of posi- tive NDVI trends throughout the region for the 1980s under favorable climatic conditions whereas the 1990s are characterized with high spatially heterogeneous disagreement between signs of NDVI and climatic trends with more significant anthropogenic impact on general decline in agro-ecosystems’ productivity. In the 2000s the presence of extensive belt elongated through dry and deserted steppes from Lower Don basin to the Eastern Kazakhstan with stable negative NDVI trend under regional aridization verifies results of projected climate change in this region towards the middle of the 21 century.
Hypoxia of trophoblast cells is an important regulator of normal development of the placenta. However, some pathological states associated with hypoxia, e.g. preeclampsia, impair the functions of placental cells. Oxyquinoline derivative inhibits HIF-prolyl hydroxylase by stabilizing HIF-1 transcription complex, thus modeling cell response to hypoxia. In human choriocarcinoma cells BeWo b30 (trophoblast model), oxyquinoline increased the expression of a core hypoxia response genes along with up-regulation of NOS3, PDK1, and BNIP3 genes and down-regulation of the PPARGC1B gene. These changes in the expression profile attest to activation of the metabolic cell reprogramming mechanisms aimed at reducing oxygen consumption by enabling the switch from aerobic to anaerobic glucose metabolism and the respective decrease in number of mitochondria. The possibility of practical use of the therapeutic properties of oxyquinoline derivatives is discussed.